夏休み企画・英語編、今日は「書換え問題」の特集です。
公立高校の入試問題ではあまり出題されません(大阪府公立高校入試では、まず出ません)。私立高校入試には必ず出題され、配点も高い分野です。
数学や理科のように、公式化して覚えておくべきだと思います。

書換え問題の公式

−毎年よく出題される問題−

(1)〜がある There are 〜〜have(has)

There are seven days in a week.
A week has seven days.

(2)雨が(雪が)降る It rains(snows)We have rain(snow)

It snows a lot here.
We have much snow here.


(3)とても〜だから〜できない so…that…can'ttoo…to…

She was so young that she couldn't go to school.
She was too young to go to school.

(4)willを使うとcan → be able tomust→have to1つの文に助動詞は1つだけ

She can play the piano very well.
(willを加えて未来形にすると)She will be able to play the piano very well.

(5)〜ほど〜ではない not as…as比較級(〜er)

Mike isn't as tall as Jane.
Jane is taller than Mike.=Mike is shorter(smallerthan Jane.


(6)他の〜よりも〜だ 最上級比較級(〜er)+than any other + 単数形

Mt.Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan.
Mt.Fuji is higher than any other mountain in Japan.


(7)まだ〜 still(まだ)を含んだ文=現在完了形(have+過去分詞)+since,for

He came to Japan three years ago.He is still in Japan.
He has been in Japan for three years.


(8)まったく〜ない not(〜n't)anyno

There weren't any children in the park.
There were no children in the park.


(9)〜してはいけない You must not(You mustn't)=Don't

You mustn't be late tomorrow morning.
Don't be late tomorrow morning.


−最近よく出題される問題−

(1)〜しなさい、そうすれば(そうしないと) 命令文,and(or)If

Study hard, and you will pass the examination(test).
If you study hard,you will pass the examination.


(2)〜することは〜だ 〜ing is easy(difficult, important, necessary, fun)=It is…(for…)to…

Studying mathematics is difficult for me.
It is difficult for me to study mathematics.


(3)〜しましょう Let'sShall weHow about〜ingWhy don't we〜

Let's go shopping,shall we
How about going shopping?

Why don't we go shopping

(4)〜が好きだ like(to…)=be fond of(〜ing)

Ken likes to listen to the radio.
Ken is fond of listening to the radio.


(5)〜が得意だ can…wellbe good at(〜ing)

He can speak English well.
He is good at speaking English.


(6)今までこんな…〜したことがない I have never 過去分詞 such a…最上級…that I have ever 過去分詞

I have never eaten such a big apple.
This is the biggest apple that I have ever eaten.


(7)受動態を使った書き換え

What language do they speak in New Zealand?
What language is spoken in New Zealand?


(8)どう〜するべきか 疑問詞(how,what,where…)…shouldhow to, what to, Where to…

Do you know how you should ski?
Do you know how to ski?


(9)とても…だから〜だ  so…that〜〜enough to…

He was so rich that he could buy a car.
He was rich enough to buy a car.


(10)〜だけれども  〜,but…Though〜,…

He is rich, but he isn't happy.
Though he is rich, he isn't happy.


(11)〜する必要はない(〜しなくてもよい)don't have toneed notIt isn't necessary

You don't have to clean this room.
You need not clean this room.
It isn't necessary for you to clean this room.


(12)分詞関係代名詞+be動詞+分詞

Do you know the boy running in the park?
Do you know the boy who is running in the park?


(13)〜に興味がある  be interested inbe interesting to

I am interested in music.
Music is interesting to me.



教科書には出てこないが知っておいたほうがよい書換え2つ

(1)関係代名詞を使った書き換え

Do you know the girl who has long hair?
Do you know the girl whose hair is long?

=前置詞withを使って Do you know the girl with long hair?

(2)感嘆文 How 副詞+主語+一般動詞!=What a 形容詞 名詞+主語+be動詞!

How well she can sing(彼女はなんと上手に歌えるのでしょう!)
What a good singer she is(彼女はなんと上手な歌い手なのでしょう!)