֤

2010ǯ06

轵˰³

Ϣ³Сǥ


ԥ󥰥åǵȤϰä
餹Ǥ˻Ф󤪤󤫤ä




ޥϥ󥺤عԤ
Ƥ顢뤴ӿ٤ƿͤ

ϥ󥺤ʤ
ԤäƤΤˤʡ
ͧãޥϥ󥺤äƳڤȤۤʤʹ餷
ԤΤϤ
夯ʤڤġ۾


㤦Ǥʤ֤֤餷

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ߥȿͤ

ߥ륯ι



Ӳ








դΥѥե٤ɤ

Ϲݲ۲Υԥ
ʡޥåȤ­




Фβʥ᡼ǡʡmˤפ


 1985

Ȫ















ե롼ĺ⤤ʡ

˾Τ㤦Τʡ

祳졼Ȥä褻˵ȤǤʡ


ȤˤǤޤ



 1986
















ޤοճä
ޤ鲻ꥺശϤä褦˻פ
ƤλǤӤϤޤޤ

ȥåˤ衪ƸƤΤ
ޤʺƤӡˤΥƥʡå˾
θɤäƤ봶ɤ
ĤƼʬƻԤäƤĤߤʡ


ʬäƲ
̼Dz̵


褯ĥäƤȻפޤ


 1987

ǤȤá











ä

ǣζλǤ


Ƶ٤Ͻ뤵ϤƤʤʤäƤ
ܤ٤ߤǤ

ϤƤáäƤͤ
觤äƤҶãˢ㤪㤡ȥƤƤϣˡ
äƤΤʤ顢ͽƤäƤפǤʾС

Ƶ٤˻ҶȰˤꤿäƤΤͭǤ



ڣζۣ
ʲƵ٤Υå̡ĤϢ

⤦Ƥؤͤ
ï



 1972


餵ڥ


ʤ󤫿










ʤߤˢϢ奤

ӥåƥ
᡼ץޥɥ졼̢
ޤΥեʥ󥷥ĤƤޤ


 1973

ڻΥå














ߤεʻ˻Ȥ󤸤ʤǤ礦ʎʎ


ǡϤäƤ

 1968













Ϥȥ꡼äƹԤǴ򸫤ƤäƤǤ

褿

ɡɡ


Ƥʤ餪¤ѡ(š)


ȥ꡼Ǥäʤ
ƤᤷƤᤷ

ڰ㤦áۡڤ
ڤ㤦ۡڤ

Ǹϡ꡼ඦܥåܥˤʤäƤ⤦
ƤͻҤ

㵢äƤ顢ޤ衼äƸƤɤ



꡼˺Ƶޤ衼á




ȤäƤʡʡmˤפ

פȻפä

äѤ걫ߤä褿ͤ


äƤ
ˤϤƤ⤦



 1956

ʤʤڥ


ߥ륯졼ע











Ϥ⡼

䡹ȥ졼׾ƤƤ


쥷Ԥä
꾮ե饤ѥä
ʬơޤ뤰餤ä

 1954

ޤä
ɤä衼










­󤷤ʤ
ͤǸʾС

ƤϺǰκȤ()


 1964
















֤ƥ졼׾Ƥ
ŤͤΤˤϣʬ­餺

ưꤹ褦
ˣ祸ΥĤƤ
Τޤ򥯥ˤƼιӱ


줵Ǥ(*ϡ*)

äƲȯڡ


 1945

ܥ











ޡطʤμ̿Ǥ

 1949


ڣ縺餷














ǡΥ٥ȡ

ĤĤʤλפޤ衰


 1951













äĤ⣱ͣ򣲿Τ
ͤäƤͤ

褯ȤȤ뤫
դοۤϤƤʤäƤ󤱤ɡʾС
Ĥʾ̵̤ĥ夲ƴĥޤ()

äΥ󥹤Τ
饷Ȥ̾ɤȤѰդ
뵤ʤ

ڥ֥äƤޤõƢ


(--;)



СȤǸȽФ㤦


ФޤǤ


(š)






ڤä


ĺ͡
꤬Ȥޤ

褤Ǥͤ


Ȥδ碌ʤ
иǤ碌äƤΤʤ

פʤ




äĥ嵐


(#ߧ)ɨ(Ρ`)



塹Ƚ򤹤

 1924

ոӤѰդ

ä⡪









ӿ٤
եξƥξ
ڴʡƧʡʡäԤ

()



ʤǾƤȾƤФ뤫
示ľƤƤǤ

ۤ޼ä嵐ʾС


뤫ۥۥƤ
ͼӸ˴
ˤ˥ݥݥ

 1930

ʤμ̿



夦夦
ʡmˤפ





ڤϤäȤĵͤƤ褩

ä̵¤٤


 1934

(š)



ͳѤ͡










 1937

åȻ














¾
ʥܡ˺ϥɥߥͤ




 1931



Υ⣵ʬѰ














˺ʤ褦ˤȤʤá


 1940

üäǤ



뤫ʾС










Τä
ʤޤȻפäƤ()

٤θϥ󥮥ʤ뤷
θⶸä褦ä
ϤʤêȤ

ڤۤ

ˤޤȤȤäʡmˤפ



ƤʤȤɤä







Ƥ

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åԥ󥰥̵̵

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㥯åͤ碌

å
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祳å






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㻰ѥ꡼

ȤΥåץɥ
Υȥ祳
󥸥







̤Υȥ祳ץ饹褿餤ʤ


ĤȸäƤ
ǯѰդꤹʤ
ϢԤ


ޡȤꤢĥꥢ


Ϻ㤤˹Ԥä
֤ܺޡ

ĥޡ

 1916

å
ʤڥ














ޤݰ٤󤸤ä衼á
Ĥä衼á


ͷӤ˹Ԥ狼ͤʾС


 1919

֤ä֡

֤ä֡


Ϥ
餷ޤ











ϤȾƤ줿ɤä

㴶äפΥȥ꡼ɤä


 1922

Žդ












Ϥ

 1923

ݡܡ













ˤ餻Ƥ饫åȤ
Ѥä˥꡼줺ڤޤ

٤ʬФȤ
¾ϣåȤĥåפˤ᤹

顢٤˿٤뤫ͤ


֤եμ̿ϻ˺줿(š)=3



η󡢣С



礦ǥ֤ƥǵ٤
ö˾ƤƤ
·

㤪ǤȤá
Ĥäƥ٥åɤ˥ӥ󥰥ץåǵ

㤵äɤԤ롩٤롩󡩡



δ˾

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(*ϡ*)


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ͤǤʤ
ŷդäƹԤäʤäƤ

ꤵ狼餺ʥӤĴ٤
ŷζ᤯á

ŷäƾ鲿ԤäƤΤ
ʶ᤯ŷդäȤΤ󤫤ä嵐

ȡڥѥɤá

ã͸١ɤˤͤ󡪡ʤƸƤΤˤʡʾС


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ǡ褿ˤ

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äȤʤ





Ҥء









ŷչԤŷưʪԤä


Ϣ줬ۤȤɤΤ
ǤΤϢ

ھݡݤǡ
ڱ
ڥ㡼ä

ʡmˤפ


ڤä嵐


ץ쥼ȤϤ⤦ˤʤä
⤬Ǥ

ॽեȤ㤨θٵʾС





 1909



硼ȥ



(ߎێ;)!?









Ťä򤹤;͵ޤǤ
󤯤

ǯ
ڥޥ󥴡ޥ󥴡ۤäƸ
ޥ󥴡äƤʸϸ
䡢ʸ礬äȤƸ蘆󤱤ɡ

 1910

̵ͥɡ

̵ͥɡ










ޤ
Ҷϴ̵ͥե롼ĤΥ硼ȥäƤΤ
ֹäꤹ͡


 1904

ǺΤ줿

饺٥꡼


٤Υ饺٥꡼












Ωäȿʤ
Ӥʤ

ޤޤҤޤʤ


֤äΥץ쥼ȤѰդƤ
Ƥͥ礦ˤͥ

 337


ɤ











ϡ

ĥʤ͡


ǤȤá

ġʡ

椫äϤФȤ






󡪡


 1879

󤵤

㥹ե쥷祳
եܥꡰ










ǥǤä

ǤȤ



襤餷ʢݤä


Τɤä󡪡ȤϤ餤㤤ʾС


 1880

Ƥ夬ꤹ




ɤä()













 1888

å


Ƕ褯
äƤͤ



̣








Ǹ΢㥢åץɥ䤬֥äƤ֤

֤ե


 1886

Фҡ

















ιԤΤڻäƤ󡰡


 1882

ɡá

(š)=3












뤪֤(š)

⤳츫㤤á


󥭥ʤ


ǡǸμ̿Ĥʤ䤱
ӤƻޤäƤΤϤ

 1893












 1898

















 1901

ǰʷ̤ˡ













ޡ󤵤󤬰դǻäƤ뤷

ϣˣϣˢ


뤤ơĴĥäƾڤäƤ
ΤϽʬĤơˤ

Ƶ٤߲ˤäͷӤˤǤʤ


Ĥá





ޤΣ

 1876

ѥपˤ















˸Ȥΰ²äƤ
­Τ֤Ȥ

̣衪á

Τ


ʤ̣

̣˸뤫
ʤޤ̣ͤ󤱤ɡġ


ڥͥˤƤáۤäƥ᡼뤬
Ω³˲狼ġʣ䤱ɡ


Τ͡
ͥäƸƤΤͤ
ǤϻĤʪǽꥵ뾦ʤʤ
ȤǤȻפä
ΤƤȤ虜虜ʤͤ

ñ˥ͥˤäƸƤ
ɤ㤨ͤ

Ȼפää館
ä֤
äơäѰդȤɡ
ͤä顢Фߤʤꤿ
ΤӤ˥ѥɤǥݥ󥸤ѰդƤؤǤ

»Ϥ»á

⤽ѥΤˡ󤫡


󡼤ǤޤդϤ狼뤷


áɤ㤨ͤá



äƤФ餯ĤͤƤ
ͤйͤۤƬϿǡ


ʤǶʤͤĤäƤϰʵ򾯤ʤ


 1861

̿̾

ڤΤ




(š)




ïե󥹸Ǥͤ󤫡
ڤΤۤե󥹸Ƥ󤫤ʡ

ۤʤ⤦äȤޤ̾ˤʤ()
ʤǤĿŪˡڤΤۤѵäƤ


ΥͥˤäƤξ
Х˥ѥɤȥݥ󥸤ϼʬǺäƻä뤳ȡ


 1865

£Σ£Τ

ѥɤȥΥ










Ȥä
ϤŹߡȤΩƤƤͤ

 1871

Ƥ夬

㥪󥸥⡰













ߣ䤫顢ʤǤ
ĹΤ󤬣ܼ뤫
ͤǤäƵäƤ餦
ڥƤͤȾʬ館㤦

ߤˤ뤫
ͤǤϣߤĤˤ館

ʤ󤫾ȤƤɤʤäƻפȤ⤢뤱
⤦ͤƤɤƤϻפ⤫Ф


Ĥ

ۤۤä

ơݥ





Х˥ѥɤޤäƤʤäƿͤ
Х˥ѥɤäƤ
ˤäƤȤäƤǤ⤤

ꥵ륱ͤ󤫤
Х˥ѥɤʤȥᡪäƻǤʤ
ɤää褿ĤǤ⤤

դΤʤ


⡼ʤ褦ˤ



֤ե

 1867

㥬ȡ祳

å















 1868

ڻ












£Σ£Τ
̾ϡ˺줿

ѥ
̤¿ɥ饤ե롼

ɥ饤ե롼ĤǤƿ٤Ƥ롪ƴ
⤯⤯ȿ٤֥


̣ä


 1873


ʤ

ʡmˤפ

ΥڡΥȥåץ