кѥ˥塼

޸Ρкѥ˥塼̤ưͻ֥Ǥϵ岹Ȳ˻ߤΤúи󾧤ޤиӽиȤϰ㤤ޤߤʴ㤤ΤǤ

2009ǯ04

ߥĥХνļCCDΥ˥塼Ƕ󤸤褦
ˤʤäƤޤ

ȤäƤ⡢ܤǤϤʤŪˤǤ

Apr. 26 2009 Х󥯡СǤCTV.ca News Staff

A group of Vancouver environmentalists is trying
to stop the strange disappearance of bee populations,
by creating new urban habitats for the insects.

֥Х󥯡СΤĶɤΥ롼פ˪δ̯ʼ򿩤
褦ȡԻԤ˪©ϤȤƤ


Experts are still trying to determine the exact cause
behind Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), which was first
given an official name in 2007. Every year, a third of
Canadian bee colonies are lost.

Ȥϡ2007ǯˤ̾դ줿CCDθʤ
ߤ褦ȤƤ롣ǯʥ1/3˪㤬Ƥ
Τ


The insects are crucial to our food supply -- bees are
needed to pollinate most of our vegetable and fruit crops.
The European honeybee provides up to $1 billion worth
of pollination services to agriculture in Canada every year.

˪ϡΤ˷礫ʤΤǡڤʪμʴ
ȤɬפʤΤΥߥĥХϡǯʥȤФ10
μʴӥ󶡤Ƥ


So why are bees disappearing? Theories point to
pesticides, some sort of contagious virus, bacteria,
or weakened immune systems. Other experts suggest
the problem has more to do with a loss of habitat.

֤Ǥϡ˪äƤΤŪˤϡޡ륹
ƥꥢȱֵǽ㲼ͤ롣ޤ©ϤӼ˴ط
ƤȻŦȤ⤤


Responding to the latter idea, the Environmental Youth
Alliance has set up 150 bee towers across Vancouver,
with hopes that bees will use the homes to lay eggs.
The project is also designed to raise awareness about
the issue.

֤©ϤӼб褦ȡִĶǯƱפϡХ󥯡
150˪äƤ˪ˤ򻺤
ȤäơΥץȤϡCCDФռ򴭵
̣⤢


"We can create habitat by putting these things out,"
said spokesperson Hartley Rosen.

ֹôΥϡؤΤ褦ˤ©Ϥ뤳ȤǤ
٤ȡҤ٤


So far, the project is getting a lot of notice south
of the border, where beekeepers have even gone to
Washington to publicize their plight.

֤ޤǤΤȤϡΥץȤϡ񶭤¦¿ܤ
Ƥ롣ϰ˪Ȥϡεʤ˥亮ȥ
ޤǹԤäƤΤ


Some U.S. beekeepers are reporting losses of up to 95
per cent, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture has made
CCD a central concern.

ƹ˪Ȥˤϡ95%˪򼺤ä𤷤ƤԤ⤤
롣̳ʤϡCCD礭ʴؿ󤻤Ƥ

With a report by CTV's Rob Brown

 

 

ϡꥹǤ

Thieves lift hives as UK bee numbers drop

ֱѹΥϥǡť˪

By Lester Haines • Get more from this author

27th April 2009 11:19 GMT


The UK's beekeepers are facing a new threat to their
hives in the wake of a dramatic decline in honeybee
numbers - the wholesale theft of colonies for sale
on a burgeoning "apian black market", as the Times
describes it.

ֱѹ˪Ȥϡ˪οηŪʸθǡʶҤľ
Ƥ롣Ƕ֥åޡåȤ˪뤿ť
Τ


The value of honeybees has risen sharply as
populations succumb to a combination of threats
including Colony Collapse Disorder and wet summers.
Accordingly, thieves who apparently have experience
handling bees and the inside knowledge to sell
them on have begun to illegally exploit the crisis.

̤˪CCD뤤Ƥε餱Ƥʤʤ뤳Ȥ顢
ߥĥХβʤ޾徺Ƥ롣Τᡢ˪ΰ˴Ƥ
ꡢѤͭƤԤδˡѤ
Ƥ


Earlier this month the Great Little Honey Company
at Rowley Hill Farm in Stretton, Staffordshire,
was relieved of 18 hives whose occupants pollinated
the farm's strawberry plants. Beekeeper Richard
Lindsey explained: “It’s soul destroying. I went
to check on the hives and all that was left were
the stands. It had been cleaned out completely.”

֥åۡɥ㡼Υȥåȥˤ饦꡼ҥΥ쥤
ȡȥ˪̪Ҥ18Ĥ˪Ȣޤ줿˪
ϡȤμʴ˻ȤƤ˪ȤΥ㡼ɡ󥸡
ϸȢγǧ˹ԤäƤߤ顢ɤˤ
äƤơ˻Ƥ


“It must have been someone who knew what they were
doing - someone in the trade. You would need equipment
to load them on to a truck and they’re not easy to
lift. And you would have to know what you were doing
- if you drop them or let them out you’d get badly
stung up without protection.”

ï˾ܤΤ˰㤤ʤȥåѤ߹ˤƻ
񤬤뤷֤ΤưפǤϤʤ⤷Ȥꤷ˪˽
ƤޤȡɤƤޤ


He continued: “It will cost me £6,000 to replace them.
And that’s without taking into account the loss of
breeding stock I had, and I’ve lost the honey crop off
them this year, which was worth £50 per hive at least.”

³롣ؼ괹Τˡ6ݥɤۤɤǤ
ˤϡ˪»ޤƤʤǯ˪̪μϤʤ
ʤꡢǤȢˤĤ50ݥɤˤϤʤ


John Howat, secretary of the Bee Farmers’ Association,
told the Times: “I imagine that the increase in demand
for hives from the public following all the press coverage
about bees over the last year, together with the very high
prices now being demanded, due to shortages following
losses has prompted this spate of thefts.

˪ȶΥ󡦥ۥåȻϡॺФΤ褦˽Ҥ
غǯ˪˴ؤ뿷ʹƻθ塢˪Фפ礷
Ȥʤ徺Ȥ⤢ޤäơ˪¿ȯˤĤʤ
äƤȻפ١


“Worryingly, it is obvious that whoever is doing it
has experience in keeping and moving bees. I always
thought we beekeepers were a small but honest crowd
of people."

ֺäȤˡԤäƤΤϡ˪λ䱿¤ηи
ΤǤ뤳Ȥ餫ϡ˪ȤȤΤϡǤϤ
뤬ľʿ͡νޤǤȤĤפäƤΤˡ

 

Lindsey suggested the thieves were out for financial
gain, rather then the bees themselves. He said:
“There could well be a black market. Bees aren’t
identifiable and the demand for bees from beginners
far outweighs supply. I know of someone who had 12 hives
stolen, another five hives and another four. It’s definitely
worth someone’s while to steal bees, divide the hives up
and sell them on.”

֥󥸡ϡϡ˪ߤƹԤäΤǤϤʤ
ȼϸإ֥åޡåȤǽ롣
˪ϡʬդǿͤ˪μפϡϤ뤫˾
Ƥ롣12ȢȢޤ줿ԤΤäƤ뤷5Ȣޤ줿Ԥ4
Ȣޤ줿Ԥ⤤롣ͤˤäƤϡФСˤʤ
ͤΤȤȤ

 

ϡ֥å뤫顣


By Pete Harrison

BRUSSELS, April 27 (Reuters) -


Europe's beekeeping industry could be wiped out in less
than a decade as bees fall victim to disease, insecticides
and intensive farming, international beekeeping body
Apimondia said on Monday.

֥衼åѤ˪Ȥϡ˪µ仦ޤ佸Ȥε
ʤäƤΤǡ10ǯ˾Ǥ뤳Ȥȡ
˪Τ˽Ҥ٤


"With this level of mortality, European beekeepers can
only survive another 8 to 10 years," Gilles Ratia, president
of Apimondia, told Reuters.

֤μ̿οǤϡ衼åѤ ˪Ȥϡ8ǯ10ǯ
Ӥ뤳ȤǤʤȡԥǥۤ˽Ҥ


"We have had big problems in southwest France for many
years, but also now in Italy and Germany."

Ĺ֡ե󥹤Ǥ礭ˤʤäƤǤϡ
ꥢɥĤˤʤäƤ


Last year, about 30 percent of Europe's 13.6 million hives
died, according to Apimondia figures. Losses reached 50
percent in Slovenia and as high as 80 percent in southwest
Germany.

֥ԥǥˤСǯ衼åѤ13.6ɴȢ
30%Ȥ롣Ӽϡ٥˥Ǥϡ50%ˡ
ɥĤǤϡ80%ãȡ


With 35 percent of European food crops relying on bees to 
pollinate them, it poses a big threat for farmers, said Ratia.

֥衼åѤʪ35%ϡ˪˼ʴȤ򤵤ƤꡢΤ
ᡢȤˤȤäƤѤʶҤˤʤäƤȡƥϸ


"It is a complete crisis," said Francesco Panella, who
tends about 1,000 hives in Piedmont, northern Italy. "Last
year, I lost about half my production. I can't survive more
than 2 or 3 more years like this. My son won't be able to
continue my trade."

֤Ѥʴ̥ꥢΥԡǥ100Ȣä
ѥͥϤǯϡʪȾʬӼΤ褦
ȤǤϡ23ǯ⤿ʤ©ҤϡλŻ³뤳Ȥ
ʤ


Mystery has surrounded the recent decline of bee numbers,
but most keepers blame modern farming methods and the
powerful new pesticides used on crops like sunflower, maize
and rapeseed.

֤˪οθˤϡ椬ĤޤȤ˪
ϡŪˡȡҤޤȥϡڼ˻
Ѥ붯ϤʿλޤΤȤ

Two main factors were responsible for weakening bee
colonies: insecticides and the parasitic mite Varroa, says
Apimondia's scientific coordinator Gerard Arnold. Once
weakened, the hives are then decimated by viruses and other
diseases.

˪νĤβƤĤ礭ʸ롣ޤȡ
ȤˤȥԥǥβʳĴΥΥɻ᤬
öβȡ˪ϡ륹¾µˤäǤܤ


Evidence of farming's impact comes from the fact French 
honey output has suffered in intensive sunflower farming
areas but has remained steady in mountains and chestnut
forests, said Henri Clement, president of the French
beekeeping union.

ˡƶͿȤڵϡե󥹤ˤơŪʤҤ
ݤ򤹤ϰ˪̪̤ƤΤˡ
֤ӤˤƤϡϤѲʤȤ¤ȤȤ
ȥե˪ȹۤΥȻ᤬

Beekeepers are perplexed about why so little attention
is given to an industry that supplies 58 percent of Europe's
appetite of 340,000 tonnes of honey a year.

˪Ȥϡǯ34ȥΥ衼åѤ˪̪פΤ58%
뤹뻺ȤʤΤ˲Ρؤɴؿ󤻤ʤΤȺǤƤ


"If cattle were producing 30 percent less milk each year,
it would not be acceptable. But that is what we have had
to put up with," said Josef Stich, who keeps 200 hives near
Vienna.

֤⤷ߥ륯ǯ30%⸺ʤ顢ϼ
뤳ȤǤʤƱȤƤ롢ȥ
200Ȣ餷Ƥ륹ƥå᤬

Earlier this year, the European Union voted to phase out
the most toxic pesticides after years of wrangling, but
many bee-keepers feel ignored by politicians.

ֺǯνᡢEUϡδ֤θ塢ϤʳŪѻߤ
뤳Ȥ᤿¿˪ȤϡȤ̵뤵Ƥ
ȡƤ


The honey industry's concerns are drowned out by the 
interests of the giant corporations that produce the
pesticides, said Apimondia's Ratia.

˪ȤηǰϡȤפˤäƤ
äƤ롢ȥԥǥΥƥϸ


"Politicians are more susceptible to the big lobbying
of the chemical industry," he said. "We beekeepers can
talk and talk, but we don't receive much consideration."

Ȥϡضȳ˼夤ϸä桹˪
Ȥϡä³뤳Ȥ;θƤϤʤ

(Additional reporting by Jeremy Smith; Editing by Matthew Jones)

 

 

 

줿Ҥޤ䥳󡢰Ϻڼʤɤݤ뤳
ϡϤλѤ뤳Ȥ̣Ƥޤ


ΤȤ˪礭ʥȥ쥹ͿƤΤǤϤʤΤǤ礦

ԤΥȥ쥹ƥȤǤϤʤ

ַϤΥȥ쥹ƥȤƹܤꤹ٤ǤϤʤΤǤ


˪ϡʥȥ쥹ƤΤʡȻפå
ꤤޤ
↓↓↓
͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

Ǥ

Ǥ

ڥե륨󥶤Ǥ˻ΤʬäƤΤǤϵ岹
ΤȤ˺ƤϤޤ󤫡

Ǥäơ䤬úи󾧤Ƥ뤳Ȥ

ΰո֤Ȥ


մ˼ϡϵ岹ȲкɸФո罸
Ƥޤ

ɸȤΤϡ2020ǯޤǤˡ椬úǤӽ
̤ɤΤ餤︺뤫ȤɸǤ

ǡմ˼ϡ6Ĥ褫ǤȸäƤΤ


ɸΣĤ

(1)2005 ǯ41990 ǯ4

(2)2005 ǯ6121990 ǯ15

(3)2005 ǯ141990 ǯ7

(4)2005 ǯ13231990 ǯ817

(5)2005 ǯ211990 ǯ15

(6)2005 ǯ301990 ǯ25



ʤϤɤΰƤӤޤ

Ǥ⡢ѤǤ硣

(1)ϡ1990ǯץ饹4%Ƥޤ

ΤԵǷ줿ܤɸϡ1990ǯޥʥ
6%äϤǤ顢4%դ䤷顢кˤʤʤǤ
ʤȡ

(2)Ǥ⡢ץ饹1%ޥʥ5%Ǥ

 

¤ϡԵ줿ɸͤΥޥʥ6%ȤΤϡ
ܤӵۼȹݼǺ︺ȤƤʬʵۼ
3.8󡢹ݼ1.6Ƿ5.4ˤȡӽ̤ɸ
1990 ǯ0.6ȤʤΤȤ


ºݤˤϡޥʥ0.6%Ȥ︺Ϥ򤷤ʤƤȤȤ
褦Ǥ

˸äƤ6%︺ȸʤ顢⻺ȸˤϡ
ۤܥȤäȤȤǤ礦

ˤƤκ︺ͤϡޥʥ25%Ǥ

ǡΰո罸ˤĤƤϡۡڡʻĤ
Ƥޤ

ɤͻҤΤǤ

ϵ岹Ȳαƶʤ˿ʤΤ鳧Ϥޤ礦
ʷϵϰڤʤ

ꡢʤ˺︺ȡ⤫뤷¸¿ʬԲǽ
Ǥ礦ŤʤƤȤФꡣ

ǡ䡢פޤ

Ǥϡ㤨С1990ǯǥޥʥ10%Ȥޥʥ15%Ȥ
︺˻ߤƤƤ⡢Ȳαƶ򤹤뤳Ȥǽȡ

ˤĤƤΩĶλˤϡIPCC
徺2 ٰޤ뤿ˤʹ2020 ǯޤǤ
1990 ǯ2540κ︺ɬפȤƤIPCC 2007ˡפȤ
ǤϤʤǤ

ĤޤꡢIPCCȽǤǤϡޥʥ25%ȤΤϺκ︺
ɸǤʤȤȤǤ


ˤ⹴餺ǰոİɬפΤǤ礦

äȤ⡢ξˤϡ̹񤴤Ȥ˺︺ɸߤ뤳Ȥˤȿ
ФǤ

¸ΤǤ͡

ΤʤС̹񤴤Ȥ˺︺ɸ褦ȤƤ⡢Ūʴ
ʤɤʤǤ

ꥫϡ䥤ɤ︺Ϥ򤹤٤ȸʤ
ȯӾ¦ϡξ⤿餷ΤϡʹΤ顢
褺ʹ¦Ϥ٤ȤƾʤǤ

ˡǯˤơȤΤޤ

ϡܤΤ褦˥ͥ륮Ψ⤤ȵդӾ¦Τ
˥ͥ륮Ψ㤤񤬤äơƱǯȤС
Ըʿˤʤ꤫ͤʤǤ

ȤȤǡ񥵥ɤ˵̳ݤϼ¸Բǽ

Ǥϡɤ뤫

úλй¦˶ϤƤ餤ǯˤ
ṳ́˸٤ߤˡŬȹͤΤǤ

ֻй¦ȿФʤΤ

λ̤¤ΤϡषפˤĤʤޤ
顢äǤϤʤǤ礦

֤̤︺ȡμΤǤϡ

μϡ᤮뤫鸺ΤǤ

Τˡ̤ä뤳Ȥ⤢뤫⤷
ޤ󤬡⤷λиˤäʬˡȤ
Сճ˻¦ϡƤǽФƤ

ơ⤷¦ǯˤ̤˸
ߤ뤳Ȥ˹դСúǤӽ̤˥ȥ
뤹뤳Ȥǽˤʤޤ

ơ񥵥ɤϡξ̤˸̤¤ݤ
Ȥޤ󤫤顢ʹ¦ɤȤ񤬤ɤȤ
ɬפϤޤ

βʤ¿徺뤳Ȥ򤱤ޤ

ȿ̡βʤ夬뤿ˡ꡼󥨥ͥ륮
γȯ®뤳Ȥͤޤ


⡢˻Ǥ礦ոФƲ

↓↓↓
http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/tikyuu/kaisai/dai07kankyo/tyuuki_iken_syousai.pdf



seijiΤꤤǤ


ϵ岹ȲϡʾŸƤϤʤȻפä
򤪴ꤤޤ
↓↓↓
͵blog󥭥󥰤


Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

ͻѤȻפäƤ顢äݤȤƤ
ޤ

ͻϡDz褬ǤǤ礦ե륨󥶤ϡ
Dz褬Ǥޤ

󡢥說ˤϤ⤬ɬפǤ礦

 

ɤԥȤޤ

ڥե륨󥶤ʤɤȤդ򡢤ޤʹȤʤä
Τǡš


򿩤٤ȴʤΤȻפäƤޤޤ

Ǥ⡢οۤϤʤ褦Ǥ

Ρڥե륨󥶤äơ

ʤɤȻפäƤȡWHOٲ٥ե4˰夲
ȡ

ִŪˡɤơ֥եפʤƤդܤǻȤΤʡ
ȻפäƤޤޤ

餯ǯ¿ϡʬʤǤ礦š

ܸǤϡٲƤ褦Ǥʤ餽ǡ
ǽ餫顢4ȤäƤ餤ޤphase Τ
⤽ΰ̣ϡʳȤơȤ褦ʤȤǤ

WHOǧȡΤ褦ʤȤˤʤäƤޤ

In Phase 1 no viruses circulating among animals
have been reported to cause infections in humans.

եǤϡʹ֤˴륦륹ϡưʪˤ⸡ФƤ
ʤ


In Phase 2 an animal influenza virus circulating
among domesticated or wild animals is known to
have caused infection in humans, and is therefore
considered a potential pandemic threat.

եǤϡܤưʪ顢ʹ֤˴ưʪ
륨󥶤Υ륹Ф졢ơʹ֤˴Ƚꤵ졢
ΤὸŪʴˤʤ򼨤ȡ


In Phase 3, an animal or human-animal
influenza reassortant virus has caused sporadic
cases or small clusters of disease in people, but
has not resulted in human-to-human transmission
sufficient to sustain community-level outbreaks.
Limited human-to-human transmission may occur
under some circumstances, for example, when
there is close contact between an infected person
and an unprotected caregiver. However, limited
transmission under such restricted circumstances
does not indicate that the virus has gained the
level of transmissibility among humans necessary
to cause a pandemic.

ե3Ǥϡưʪե륨Υ륹ͤ˴
ޤͤȿͤȤδ֤ǴۤɤޤǤˤãƤʤâ
ͤȤܿ٤⤤ĶβǤϡǽ⤢ȡ
ĴۤɤǤϤʤȡ


Phase 4 is characterized by verified
human-to-human transmission of an animal or
human-animal influenza reassortant virus able to
cause “community-level outbreaks.” The ability
to cause sustained disease outbreaks in a
community marks a significant upwards shift
in the risk for a pandemic. Any country that
suspects or has verified such an event should
urgently consult with WHO so that the situation
can be jointly assessed and a decision made by
the affected country if implementation of a rapid
pandemic containment operation is warranted.
Phase 4 indicates a significant increase in risk
of a pandemic but does not necessarily mean
that a pandemic is a forgone conclusion.

ե4ϡĴȤߤ롢ͤȿͤȤδ֤Ǥ
ưʪե륨δǧ줿֡ξ֤ˤʤС
ϤWHO𤹤뤳Ȥɬסե4ϡĴ
ꥹ⤤Ȥ򼨤ФˤʤȤǤϤʤ

 

Phase 5 is characterized by human-to-human
spread of the virus into at least two countries
in one WHO region. While most countries will
not be affected at this stage, the declaration
of Phase 5 is a strong signal that a pandemic 
is imminent and that the time to finalize the
organization, communication, and implementation
of the planned mitigation measures is short.

եϡWHO1ϰˤơ2ʾǿͤȿͤȤδ֤
ǧ줿֡ĴäƤ롣


Phase 6, the pandemic phase, is characterized
by community level outbreaks in at least one other
country in a different WHO region in addition to 
the criteria defined in Phase 5.Designation of this
phase will indicate that a global pandemic is under
way.

ե6ϡĴʳǡե5֤˲ä
ˡWHOΰ㤦ϰǤ1ʾǡͤȿͤȤδ֤Ǵ
ǧ줿硣Ū˽Ĵʹξ֡

 

ʤ󤫡ʸϤɤǤȡԵ̣Ǥ͡

Ǥ⡢ʤȤʤߤξȤɤǧƤΤ
Ǥ褦ʵޤ


ˤƤ⡢ܤοʹϡڥե륨󥶤ΤȤڥ
פʤάƤޤΤǤ礦͡

ѸǤϡ磻󡦥ե륨

swine influenza


  ե졢ե顢ե

ʶ路Ǥ

Ĺƺ褦ʤ顢եǤΤǤϤʤǤ礦

ƹǤϡե륨󥶤ΤȤϡեȸäƤޤڥ
륨󥶤⡢swine flu ȸƤǤޤΤǡ


Ǥ⡢ʤȤɤäǤ⤤Ǥ͡

ϡե륨󥶤ˤʤ褦˵Ĥ뤳ȤǤ

ĤϡܤΤȤХˤʥꥫ⡢Ͼ٤
㤤ޤ

ϡܤϡΥȤˤ˥⥰ե֤ơǮ
ꤽʿͤåƤΤˡꥫϤʤΤȽ
ƤΤǤ

޳ѤΥǥ󥦥ǤŤ褵ʷϵ
Ǥ

Ĥϥޥʤɤʤƹͤδ֤Ǥ⡢ޥƤ






դ褦Ȼפäå򤪴ꤤޤ
↓↓↓
͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

 Good morning. Over the last three months, my
Administration has taken aggressive action to
confront an historic economic crisis. As we do
everything that we can to create jobs and
get our economy moving, we’re also building
a new foundation for lasting prosperity – a
foundation that invests in quality education,
lowers health care costs, and develops new sources
of energy powered by new jobs and industries.

֤Ϥ褦3֡ϡŪʷкѴפ٤
ѶŪʹưäƤѤϽФкѤưᡢǤ
¤ΤȤԤ³Ū˱ɤΤδäۤƤΤǤ
롣δäȤϡι⤤ФǤꡢťȤ
뤳ȤǤꡢơѤ仺ȤˤäưϤͿ
롢ͥ륮ȯ뤳ȤǤ

 

One of the pillars of that foundation must be
fiscal discipline. We came into office facing
a budget deficit of $1.3 trillion for this year
alone, and the cost of confronting our economic
crisis is high. But we cannot settle for a future
of rising deficits and debts that our children
cannot pay.

֤δäȤʤΰĤϡΧǤʤФʤʤ桹
äȤǯǤ1.3ɥκֻäк
б뤿ΥȤϹ⤤桹ϡֻ礷
桹λҶʧȤΤǤʤڶ餦ȤˤʤȤ
ż뤳ȤϤǤʤ

 

All across America, families are tightening
their belts and making hard choices. Now,
Washington must show that same sense of
responsibility. That is why we have identified
two trillion dollars in deficit-reductions over
the next decade, while taking on the special
interest spending that doesn’t advance the
peoples'interests.

֥ꥫβۤΤҤơ񤷤򤷤Ƥ롣
䡢亮ȥϡƱ褦Ǥ򼨤ɬפ롣顢
桹ϡ10ǯ֤ˤ2ɥκ︺򤹤뤳Ȥǧ
ޤǤϡ̱פʤˤϷӤĤʤο͡
λٽк︺˼Ȥ


But we must also recognize that we cannot
meet the challenges of today with old habits and
stale thinking. So much of our government was built
to deal with different challenges from a different era.
Too often, the result is wasteful spending, bloated
programs, and inefficient results.

֤桹ϡŤȵְȤ׹ˡǤϡ
ΩȤǤʤȤ򤷤ʤФʤʤ桹
ܤȾϡۤʤäΰۤʤäн褹뤿
줿ơη̵̸̡粽ΨȤ
Ȥ٤ⵯ


It’s time to fundamentally change the way
that we do business in Washington. To help
build a new foundation for the 21st century,
we need to reform our government so that
it is more efficient, more transparent, and
more creative. That will demand new thinking
and a new sense of responsibility for every
dollar that is spent.

ֺ亮ȥǤλŻΤŪѤȤ21
δäۤˡ桹ϡäȸΨŪǡäƩ
ꡢä¤褦ˤ뤿ˡܤפɬפ
롣ΤˤϡٽФ1ɥ1ɥФơ׹ˡ
Ǥ롣


Earlier this week, I held my first Cabinet
meeting and sent a clear message: cut what
doesn’t work. Already, we’ve identified
substantial savings. And in the days and weeks
ahead, we will continue going through the budget
line by line, and we’ll identify more than 100
programs that will be cut or eliminated.

ֺᡢϡǽγյĤ򳫤Τʥåä
ǽʤΤϺ졢ȡ桹ϡˡǧƤ롣
줫衢桹ϡͽĤĥåȤ³̾
뤫ѻߤȤʤ100ʾꤹ뤳Ȥˤʤ


But we can’t stop there. We need to go
further, and we need an all-hands-on-deck
approach to reforming government. That’s
why I’m announcing several steps that my
Administration will take in the weeks ahead
to restore fiscal discipline while making our
government work better.


֤ǽ뤳ȤϤǤʤʤɬפ롣
ܤβפΤϤ󤲤ˡɬפǤ롣桹
ܤɤǽ褦ˤǡΧ뤿
ԤȤˤʤĤΥƥåפ䤬ȯɽƤ
ΤϡΤǤ



First, we need to adhere to the basic principle
that new tax or entitlement policies should be
paid for. This principle – known as PAYGO –
helped transform large deficits into surpluses
in the 1990s. Now, we must restore that sense
of fiscal discipline. That’s why I’m calling on
Congress to pass PAYGO legislation like a bill
that will be introduced by Congressman Baron
Hill, so that government acts the same way
any responsible family does in setting its budget.

ˡ桹ϡܸ§¤˼ɬפ롣θ§
ϡΤ˿ǤݸʧΤǤ롣θ§
ϡʸʧˤȤΤƤꡢ1990ǯ礭
Ȥʤä䡢桹ϡΧ
ʤФʤХ󡦥ҥİˤäƳˡ
Ƥ˻ˡ̲ᤵ褦䤬IJƤ
ϡΤǤ롣ˡΧˤäơܤϡǤΤ
ͽȤ˹ư褦ˡư뤳ȤˤʤǤ

 

Second, we’ll create new incentives to reduce
wasteful spending and to invest in what works.
We don’t want agencies to protect bloated
budgets – we want them to promote effective
programs. So the idea is simple: agencies that
identify savings will get to keep a portion of
those savings to invest in programs that work.
The result will be a smaller budget, and a more
effective government.

ˡ桹ϡ̵̤ʻٽФ򸺤餷ƵǽΤˤ
Ȥ褦ˤ뤿ο󥻥ƥ֤ߤ롣桹ϡܵ
ؤˤϡĥͽ餻ʤܵؤˤϡͭ
¥ʤ褦ˤƤ餤ñʤȤ򤷤ܵ
ˤϡΰǽ˻ȤȤǧ롣η
̡ͽϾʤꡢŪܤǤǤ

 

Third, we’ll look for ideas from the bottom up.
After all, Americans across the country know
that the best ideas often come from workers –
not just management. That’s why we’ll establish
a process through which every government
worker can submit their ideas for how their
agency can save money and perform better.
We’ll put the suggestions that work into practice.
And later this year, I will meet with those who
come up with the best ideas to hear firsthand
about how they would make your government
more efficient and effective.

軰ˡ桹ϡ줫夬äƤ륢ǥõɡ
ι̱ϡɤǥϡܤǤϤʤ줫夬äƤ
뤳Ȥ¿ȤΤäƤ롣餬°ܵؤǡ
򤷡Ψ夲뤳ȤǤ뤫ȤȤˤĤơƤθ̳
ǥФ륷ƥ桹ȤƤΤϡ
ΤǤ롣Ȼפ륢ǥϡ»ܤ뤳Ȥˤʤ
ǯˡϡɤǥФƤ줿͡˲񤤡ɤ
ܤäǽΨ褯ƸŪˤ뤳ȤǤ뤫ľʹ
Ȼפ

And finally, we will reach beyond the halls of
government. Many businesses have innovative 
ways of using technology to save money, and
many experts have new ideas to make
government work more efficiently. Government
can – and must – learn from them. So later this
year, we will host a forum on reforming 
government for the 21st century, so that we’re
also guided by voices that come from outside of
Washington.

ֺǸˡ桹ϡܤɤĶǤ¿δȤϡ
󤹤뤿˳׿ŪʼˡͭƤ롣¿Ȥϡܤ
äǽΨɤˡΤäƤ롣ܤϡ餫ؤ֤Ȥ
Ǥ뤷ؤФʤФʤʤǯ˲桹ϡ21Τ
ܲץե򾷽롣뤳Ȥǡ亮ȥγ
ˤ⼪򷹤뤳Ȥˤʤ


We cannot sustain deficits that mortgage our
children’s future, nor tolerate wasteful inefficiency.
Government has a responsibility to spend the
peoples’ money wisely, and to serve the people
effectively. I will work every single day that I am
President to live up to that responsibility, and to
transform our government so that is held to a
higher standard of performance on behalf of
the American people.

ֲ桹ϡҶξ褦ֻݻ³
ȤϤǤʤΤߤʤ餺̵̤ΨˤѤʤ
ϡ̱Τ򸭤Ȥƹ̱ǽΨ褯ԤǤ롣
ϡΤȤơǤ̤Ư
ˤʤơꥫ̱ΤˡܤΨΤ褤Τ
ž뤿ƯȤˤʤ

 

Thank you.


ȤȤǡХΤϡֻ︺뤿ˡ4Ĥ
ƤԤޤ


äǤ礦

褺ϡ

PAYGO§Ǥ

pay as you go Ȥޤ

ñ˸СʧΤȤ餷ΤǤ

нФ˷ӤĤԤ硢Ǥ⤷¾κ
йܤθʤɡ⸻ݤǹԤʤФʤʤȤ
롼ΤȤʤΤȤȡ

פˡñʤ뤪ͤϥᡪ

ʧäƤ͡Ȥ§ΤȤʤΤǤ

ڶϸϤǤ


ǡϡäǤ礦

礬򤹤Сΰϡͳ˻Ȥ碌Ȥ
󥻥ƥ֤Ϳ뤳ȤǤ͡

ơ軰ϡܥȥॢåפǡ줫ո罸ȡ

ơͤϡȤΰոİȡ


ƤߤȡäܿΤϤʤ褦Ǥˤ⹴餺
ȤΤƸʤФʤʤȤȤϡ
ֻﲽƤȤȤǤ礦

ϡƥѡƥȾΤǥ⤬ޤ


ơꥫιĤ¿ͭƤϡꥫκ
ֻ˴ؿ󤻤Ƥޤ



ꥫֻϡ³Ȼפå򤪴ꤤޤ
↓↓↓
͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

⡢ɾפˤĤƹͤޤ

ʤΤˡ褯ͤ͡

⤢äȤǤ

2ͤ顢䤬ޤ


ĤˤĤƤϻɾ񻺤ˤĤƤǷ׾夹
С̳ĶɤʻĶˤʤäƤޤΤǤϡ


䡢¨¤ۤɤμϤޤ

ФεĤλɾʤספˤϡ
Τ褦ޤ

ִ¦˺̤;Ϥ礭ȤƩ򶯤װ
ƥ롼פĤɾ27ɥפФ
ꤷͭ񻺤ΰϵդ˻ɾꡢ6ɥʬ
ɾ»׾򤷤ײ夲Թɤ褦ѤƤ
Ȥθ⤢

 

ȤȤǡŦΤ褦ʤȤ櫓Ǥ


ɾפˤĤơĴ٤Ƥߤޤ

졢ѸDzȸƤФƤ뤫

ˡϡthe fair value option ȸƤФƤΤ

եǤ衢ե

 

ˡꥫβץ롼FAS157)ˤС

񻺤ϡ3Ĥδdz롣ȡ

٥1ԾʤȤ˻ɾ

٥2񻺤λԾʤ򻲹ͤɾ

٥3Ծʤ꺤ʤᡢҤΥǥɾ
ФƤ


ȤȤˤʤС

ҤȯԤҺĤϡԾʤĤƤΤǻɾ
ΰǡԾǤμߤƤޤäƤôݾڷ
ɤˤĤƤϡһвʤǷ׾夹뤳ȤǤƤޤȤ
Ǥ


ϡֻפߡפʤɥ󡪤ȺǶޤʰƤ
ΤǤš


¤ϤɤȤС

ֻפߡפǤϤʤ񻺤ˤĤƤϻפߤ
ĤˤĤƤϻפŬѤȤȤǤʤ
ʤȤ򤷤Ƥ櫓Ǥ

ȤФơɤƸǧ׻Τ󤿤ϡܤʤΤ

β׻ΤˤĤƸ뤳ȤǤ

ơ׼ˡǧͻɤϡˡ
ʤȸΤǤ礦

ϡ100ǯ˰٤δ顢ȤȤǤ礦


ƥӤʤɤϡȤˤĤƲ󤸤ޤ

餯İԤȿ򼨤ʤȻפǤ礦ޤƥӶ
ȡȤˤĤƤδŪμʤɤȽǤƤ
ʬʤ餫⤷ޤ


ġֱ±͡פȤȤ򤵤Ƥ
Ǥ礦


ơ쵤˥ɥοǧƤƤޤ֤


䤬ޤ깥ǤϤʤ롼ޥ󶵼ϡβ׽ˤĤ
ơ
Ի׵ĤιΥꥹפǤϤʤֶͻΥꥹפꤷ֥
ǥȤƤޤ422


So the accounting rules say that a decline
in the market value of a bank’s debt thanks
to increased credit default swap spreads —
that is, because investors think you’re
more likely to fail — counts as a a profit.

ֽäơβץ롼ˤС쥸åȡǥեȡåפ
ץåɤ礷Ȥˤäơ¨Ȥζ
þǽ⤯ʤȽǤ뤿Ǥ뤬Ԥμ
ĤλԾʤ㲼ȡʬפ׾夹뤳Ȥˤʤ


On the other hand, if your bank looks stronger,
the spreads fall, and you book a loss.

ְȶСץåɤ㲼»׾夹뤳
ˤʤ

ά

So Citigroup is profitable because investors
think it’s failing, while Morgan Stanley is losing
money because investors think it will survive.
I am not making this up.

ֽäơƥ롼פϡȤȶʤäƤȻפ
顢פ׾夷륬󥹥졼ϡȤƤ
Ȼפ顢»׾夷Ƥ

 


ԤĤɾʤƤȻפäϡ
򤪴ꤤޤ
↓↓↓
͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

ɾסϡǤޤ

ɾפäơ

Τǡƥ롼פֻˤʤ餺˺ѤȤäǤ
ʤǤ

ֻפŬѤߤȡ

ǤϤʤĤɾȤȤǤ

֤ɤȡ

Ǥϡʬ䤹äޤ礦

βҤҺĤȯԤǥӥͥϤȤޤ

100ߤμҺĤȯԤȤޤ礦

ơ100ߤǡôݾڷȤޤ

ҺĤζϡ4%ǡôݾڷϡ8%
äȤޤ礦

βҤϡ8%4%򺹤4%Ԥ
ǽǤ

󡢤򺹤ȤɬפǤȤꤢ
4%ԤȤǤޤ

100ߤ4%Ǥ顢4ߤפȤƷ׾夵Ȥ
Ǥ

֤ܤ͡


Ǥ͡麸ˤ󤹤ǡβҤϡ٤
Ǥ櫓Ǥ


ȤǤ

¿

֤ɤΡ

Х֥뤬ϤơôݾڷͲꤷʤ
ȾͤˤʤäޤäȤޤ礦

100ʬνôݾڷ50ߤβͤʤ
äƤޤΡ

ȡ

ˡβҤ1ߤλܶͭƤơ¶⤷
ȤСβҤΥХ󥹥ȤϼΤ褦ˤʤäƤ
ϤǤ


񻺡䡡    ġܡ

¶⡡        1ߡ Һġ 100
ôݾڷ100ߡ ܶ    1


񻺷ס     101ߡġܷס101




ޤǤϤǤ礦

֤

ǡۤɸä褦ˡôݾڷ50ߤβͤ
ʤʤäȤޤ

ȡ񻺤ιפϡ51ߤʤʤꡢФơ
Ĥ100ߤǤ顢餫˺̳Ķᡪ

ݻϡɬˤʤǤ礦

֤ݻ㤦Ρ

Ǥ⡢μҺĤԴޤޤǤϡβҤϡ
ɬפʤ櫓Ǥ顢ݻȤϸ¤ޤ󡣤ޤ
Ƥ뤦˽ôݾڷβͤ뤫⤷ޤ

֤ôݾڷβͤϡޤ徺뤫⤷
Τ͡

Ǥ͡

֤ä顢ôݾڷβͤ100ߤΤޤޤ
ȤС̳ĶˤϤʤʤ

줬פߤȤȤǤ͡

ôݾڷβͤ򡢤ޤǤ˿֤Ȥ
Ǥ

СβҤϡɽŪˤϺ̳Ķ˴٤뤳ȤϤ
ޤ

֤褫ä褫ä

ɽŪ˺̳ĶǤƤ⡢ҺĸԤϻ֤
ǧƤޤ

βҤ¼Ū˺̳Ķ˴٤äƤ뤳Ȥ

֤礦


ȤȤǡ᤯βҤμҺĤʧäȤ
ȤϤǤ

βҤλ񻺲ͤȾ櫓Ǥ顢ҺĤβʤȾ
ͰʲˤʤΤǤ礦

ּҺĤβʤȾͰʲˤʤȡҤ»Ρ

ľ»򤹤뤳ȤϤޤ»򤹤ΤϡҺĤͭƤ
ȤǤ

ҺĤβʤ˽̡Ϥ䡢ҤҺĤȯԤ
褦ȤƤ⡢ïʤǤ礦

ȤȤˤʤȡҤλ꤬ⷫԤͤޤꡢҤϤ
뤳Ȥˤʤ뤫⤷ޤ

֤Ǥ⡢Ȥꤢϡ̳ĶǤϤʤΤ͡顢ҺĤȯ
ԤǤʤƤԤ餪ڤƤʤȤš


Ǥ⡢Ԥ⡢βҤ¼Ū˺̳ĶˤʤäƤ뤳Ȥ
դǤ礦

֤ɤơ

äơôݾڷɾƤʤȤʬ
뤫Ǥ

֤Ǥ⡢ôݾڷɾȡ̳ĶˤʤäƤ
ޤΤ͡

Ǥ͡

ȤȤǡβҤϡɤߤƤ̳Ķξ֤ˤΤǤ
ǵˤΥƥ˥åޤ

񻺲ʤɾΤǤСĤɾƤޤ
ȡ

Ĥλɾ

Ǥ㤨СβҤμҺĤβʤ̤5ˤޤ
ȤСĤμҺĤ100ߤ50ߤ˰
櫓Ǥ

ȡҤͭ񻺤βͤȾƱ褦ˡ
ĤβͤȾơɡ̳ĶϲǤȤǤ

֤Ǥ⡢ϡҺĸԤ100߽ԤʤȤʤΤǤ

ϡΤȤꡣ

Ǥ⡢βҤԾDzҤμҺĤơĤõѤ
뤳ȤǽʤΤǤ

֤㤢ҺĤ㤦Ρ

̤㤦ɬפϤޤ

ˡºݤ˵βҤҤμҺĤ㤤˽Фȡʤ
夬äƤޤޤ͡

ޤǤɾפ׾夹ȤȤǤ

֤㤢Ҥϡ̳Ķˤʤ뤳ȤϤʤΤ͡

ҺĤβʤޡåȤǤɤȡҤֺѵ
̳︺ǤϤʤΤǤ

ҺĤνԴơҺĸԤϡҤФۤ
100ߤλʧޤ

ơβҤϡͤȾôݾڷ
ͭƤʤС50ʬԤǤʤȤȤˤʤޤ

äѤꡢβҤϡ50ߤκ̳ĶˤʤäƤȤ
ʤΤǤ

ꥫ1ǯۤ˺ѤˤΥƥ˥åˤС
βҤϡ̳ĶǤΤǤ

 


פϡaccount ȸޤ

׻Τϡaccountant

  Ǥϡaccountability


  ꥫǤϡaccountabilty ȤդϤɤعԤäΤǤ礦


ܤꥫο褷ƤʤȤ򶯤˾ߤޤ

 




Ϲ᤮롢Ȼפäå򤪴ꤤޤ
↓↓↓
͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

⤦ʤΤȤФäǤ͡

Ǥ⡢λ򤻤ޤ


Ȥ͡򸫤Ƥ顢˥塼®ήޤ

ǡǽʹΤϡ

ָ襤ĺ


ʧäơ襤ġ


ϡͤǤǤͻҤȤʤ
λҤˤʤäƤѤƤޤޤ


ƻȤˤȡ

ǤϷ褷Ƥʤ

ʤϡˤʤäФƤʤΤǤ

Dz

μĥˡФޤ

ʤƤ⡢ָפǤϤʤ褦ʵޤ

ΤˡޤǤνǤ

⡢λӤϡ˿ͤäƤϤʤȤ

Ȥ顢ʤƤ⡢ʤˤϡ¾ͤ˸տ
ϤʤäϤǤ

ʤϡȤ֤ƤȤޤ

ȤȤϤǤ衢ࡢʧäơʬä褿ȡ
㤤ΤǤϤʤΤǤ礦



ʤƤ⡢򸫤ĤǤäͤϤʤϤ
Ǥ

ҤäȤơꤵ󤬡򸫤Ĥ줿顢Ȥͳ
ΤǤ礦

ǤȤ٤Ǥ

ʤС襤ĺǤϤʤȺˡȿȤä٤Ǥ
ʤΤǤ礦


򡢤ɤơָ襤ĺפꤷƤޤΤǤ礦

򤻤ޤ

졢οʧΤä顢ٻˤĤƤơ
ⶵ줿ǡΤǤϤʤǤ礦


ʤΤˡΡܺޤǤΤǤ礦

⤷ʤ¾λǤȤǤä
ΤʤǤʤǤϤޤ

Ǥ⡢ФƤʤäȤ

ȽϡȹͤͿΤǤ礦


򤻤ʤ



襤ĺϡȴå򤪴ꤤ

↓↓↓
͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

ƹͻ6Ҥ13η軻Фޤ


ͻ6ҡ12ߡ

֥륺եǹס


̤ˤߤƤߤޤ礦

09ǯ13ǽ»

ƥ롼ס1593ɴɥ
JP륬󡦥2141ɴɥ
Х󥯡֡ꥫ4247ɴɥ
륺եݥ3045ɴɥ
ɥޥ󡦥å1814ɴɥ
륬󡦥졼 177ɴɥ


ǽ»פֻʤΤϡ륬󡦥졼Τ褦Ǥ

6Ҥκǽ»פιפϡ126ɥι

08ǯ1012ϡ255ɥֻǤ顢ǯ
žƤʹǤ

Ǥ⡢ѤǤ͡

ꥫμηкѼΤޤ˲Ƥ櫓Ǥʤ

षɺĸΨϾ徺ƤȤޤ


ǤϡιˤʤäΤǤ礦

ϡζͻؤηбĴĶʤäƤ뤫Ǥ

ְ̣

ɾפȤΤ¸ΤǤ

ϡѤʤΤޤǤ

пʹˤϡޤ


ɾפȤϡҺĤʤɴȤĤλԾ͡ʻˤ
ˡȤĸԤؤλʧ̳Ʊ˸Ȥ
ʤƤʬפ˷׾夹Ρ


󡢤6ҤΤä¿ۤɾפ׾夷Τϡ

ƥ롼פ27ɥ롢

ơХ󥯡֡ꥫ22ɥǤȤ

Ĥޤꡢƥ롼פϡɾפ׾夷ʤС
Ǥä櫓Ǥ

 

Ǥޤ


㤨СԤҺĤȯԤȤޤ

ȯԻˤϡäʤ¿ȤμҺĤäȡ

θ塢ͻȯ

֥꡼ޥ֥饶þΤ褦ʡ

Ǥ

ơζԤȯԤƤҺĤβʤ˽Ȥ

㤨СҺĤβʡʻˤ̤7ˤʤäȤޤ礦

֤顢Ȥϡ3ʬɾ»ȤƷ׾夹ΤǤ礦

ǤϡȯԼԤζԤϡɤʤΤǤ礦

Ʋ״FAS159ϡҺĤβʤ㲼ʬפ˷׾
뤳ȤǧƤΤȤ

졢⤷ȯԼԤμҺĤ㲼ʤǻԾ줫
㤤夲ȡθθܤ̳ѤǤȤ
ͤƤΤǤ礦



ִȤĸԤؤλʧ̳Ʊ˸Ȥߤʤơ

ȤͤˤϡƱ뤳ȤϤǤޤ

 

ʹͤǧΤǤС

þ礤˷ǰƤҤФĸϡؤɥ˶
ͤǧʤΤǡ

ȡ̳ĶβҤʤ¸ߤʤʤäƤޤǤϤʤ


ʲ״ࡢХХȤʳˤޤ


Ǥ⡢ƹɤϡꥫζͻؤפȸĥ
ΤǤ礦

 

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Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

4ִԤ¸뤿ˡȸĤƤˤ

֤ʡˡäޤäʡ

äޤäΤϡɽ


󡢤ȯɤפޤ

֤ȯäơ

顢4ǤϤʤ3.5Ǥ⤤顢ȤȯǤ

ˤʤȸäΡ

ϡľʹǤϤʤΤǡȤޤ󤬡
ʾ礹ȡäȹͤ褦ʡ


ǡˤƤ⡢Ρ֤äޤäɽȯβоä˺
äȤʤäƤ褦˸ΤǤѤǤ͡

Τˡ3.5Ȥϲ4硢ִԤ٤פȤ
Ϥ褯¸Ƥޤ

3.5Ȥȡܤʾ򤵤줿Τ褦ʷ
ɺޤ

줬3.5ɤ2ˤʤСȤǤʤȤȤˤʤΤ

εǤΥǥѡȤȸ줿ڵİ2Ǥ⤤ȥ
¦ƤȤ줿ȤˤϡѤȽʤ줿
Ǥ

äƤߤС۸ƤФǤ


Ǥ⡢3.5ִϡʤιͭƤ褦˻ˤ
פޤ

ȤΤϡñ4礷ܤִԤȤ
ǶȤǡ¸ʤǤ

4礬ܤθͭڤȶȤǡ¾ι
ؿ򼨤ޤ󤷡š

ˡ¦ϤιԻȤˤäƼ᤹ȤǤޤ
š


ȤȤʤΤǡˤʤȤ櫓Ǥ

A ¸ˤ˳ȤʬĤĤǸޤ4ִԤ
ĥ롣

B ¸θ⤷35ִԤ¦ݤ褦Ǥ
С¦⡢3.5ִԤ롣


ȤȤǡɡɤä縢Ԥ̱֤
ʤΤȻפޤ

AΥåȤϡΥץ饤ɤĤ뤳ȤʤȤǤ
ºݤˤϡϵäƤʤ

BϡܿͤΥץ饤ɤĤޤǤ⡢ϡѤǤäȾ
ʬϵäƤޤ


4ȤܤΤΤȸΤΤȤǤ¸ʤ
а̣ʤš
ͤС3.5ִԤ٤
⤷ޤ

ֻĤ0.5ʬϡΡ

괺᤿դ򤷤ƤФǤϤʤǤ

ơ3.5򤷤äᤷǡơä֤вᤷ
ǡޤĤ0.5ˤĤƹͤ餤ǤϤʤǤ


ˤƤ⡢ʵ쥽ϢˤΤưĹ֤Фä
ޤäƤꡢΤξ֤ᤷܤִԤȤ
ϡŪǤʤʤäƤޤ

˽Ǥͤθ򤢤ºŤ褦ʤȤɬ
פǤ礦

ȤȤǡ4ʤ35礬ܤΤΤǤ뤳Ȥǧᤵ
Ʊˡ¦⡢¦ä¤򤢤پǧ
ȤɬפˤʤǤ礦

ȤȤǡ3.5ܤȥϢƱ褦ʤȤͤ
ɤǤ礦

ơΤ褦Ϫδط뤳Ȥˤäơܤγ
ɤ褦ʵΤǤ


ˤƤ⡢֤äޤäɽ˥ɥХ롼夲Ƥ
ơϡоäˤäˤʤäƤΤϲ򤻤ޤ

äơΤޤǤιͤȤԤäĴ碌Ƥ
뤫Ǥ

ȯ2ϪǾ̡

ŪǷˤϤޤʤץס

ͤǤƤƤϤȤ褹ʳˡϤ

ָ硢äǤŸʤ


3ǯۤγȯ

ª25%ʹ塢񡢿ðΡ3ˤäĤȡ
ϡ5050Ψˤʤ



3.5ȤΤϲɡ֤äƤʤϤäݤɤ
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Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

Ūͻʹơɤפޤ

ŪͻפȤϡnontraditional policy ȸƤФޤ

ޤǤˤäƤȤϰ㤦ȤȤǤ

Ǥ⡢ɤƺޤǤˤäƤǤܤʤΤǤ礦

ϡʤ顣

ŵΰ

ꥫϡǯ12˥Ѥ˻ޤ
ͶƳɸ0%0.25%ϰϤȤƤޤ

郎ϡϡѤƤޤ󤬡Ǥ
ͶƳɸ0.1%Ǥ顢ꥫȤѤϤޤ

ȤȤǡۤܥ%ˤʤȡʾΰϤ
ʤʤäƤޤޤ

ʵϲɤޤԶﲽ붲줹
ޤ

Τ褦ʤȤˡԤϲ򤹤٤

Сʥ󥭵Ĺϸޤ

۾ˤϰ۾ɬפȤ롣

Extraordinary times call for extraordinary measures.


 ĤơܤϡŪºȤΤѤȤޤ

򤽤ʾ岼뤳ȤǤʤƤ⡢ˤ¾ˤ٤
ȤǤϤʤȤȽ˱ΤǤ


ԤܤƱ褦ʾ֤
ΤǤ

ECBޤǤ⤬ŪκѤԤȸäƤޤ


ơпʹ˷кѶȤʡΤǤ¸

ΥʡǡŪͻˤĤʬ䤹
⤵Ƥޤ

ݥȤϣġɽϡƤޤ

ʣ˥ξˤäƤϡޥ͡ɤ礷Ƥ
פäˤϤĤʤʤ

 

áѤǤ͡

ޥ͡ɤǤⶡ뤹Сʵɷ㤵졢פ
ȤΤŪιͤǤϤʤäΤǤ礦

ޤΤȤϸǹͤȤơϡ

ʣ˥եԤĤޤη̾ɷ㤷褦ȤƤ⡢
¤ˤ񤷤

⡢ءáȤǤ

ϡե쥿åȤιͤȿФʤΤǤեˤ
ʵɷ㤵ʤȤΤǤСΤŪ
Ȥʤ뤫Ǥ

ʣŪѤˤϡߤΤȤͤƤ
٤

ߤΤȤͤȤΤϡиȸƤФΤǤ


ǤϡΤ褯ʬʤΤǡ⤦
ȤߤƤޤ礦

 

褺ϡ2007ǯ1˹ԤäFRBΥߥ奭ȯ
Ҳ𤷤ޤ

ߥ奭ȤΤϡܤΤȤХϺȽ
ѤʤǤ

ֻ񻺲ʥХ֥ͻƥ԰⤿餹
ϤۤɤɤʤʥХ֥ͻƥ԰
⤿餹ȤϤäȹͤˤ


̤ϡȿФΤȤޤ

¿οͤϡܤηиɤ߰㤨Ƥ롣ϥХ֥
ǤϤʤθбǤ


ʤȤäƤΤǤ

ĤΡtoo little, too late εǤ


涵ʤɤƱ褦ʤȤޤɡ


ȤȤǡĤơܤϡޡ䥯롼ޥ󶵼
б̤뤤Ȥ󤶤񤵤줿ΤǤ

ơ̷ϡ®ΨܶԤ˸줿
ΤǤ

ǤϡȽ򤷤ƹ񼫿ȤϡɤưƤΤ

ϸޤ

ɤͻҤѲƤƤȡ

1998ǯ롼ޥ󶵼ϡΤ褦ܤФɥХ
򤷤ȡ

㤨С4%ΥեΨ15ǯ³륤եɸ
̵͡ǤǤ뤳Ȥο뤳Ȥɬפ

Υ롼ޥ󶵼ͤ᤿Ȥ֥ɽ
ƤȤΤǤ

ήư櫤Ȥϥʥ󥻥󥹤ǡˤʤäƤ⡢̲
䤻פ򴭵ǤȻפäƤšά˳
ˡԤĹĤꥹ񻺤㤦ʤɤμǤĤȤϤ
롣̱Υꥹ뤳Ȥθ̤ǡ̲
뤬ä뤳ȤǸ̤櫓ǤϤʤš

ФǤϤʤ롼ޥ󶵼ϡեԤˤ
ʵˤĤƤ⡢ܤ䥢ꥫϡԤʪΤ
˹ưȿͤ͡Ǥ̤ʤǤȸä
ȤΤǤ

ȤȤǡ롼ޥ󶵼ϡδؿоݤ򡢺
Է˸ƤȤΤǤ


Ǥ⡢롼ޥ󶵼ϡܤ䥢ꥫХ֥Τ褦˹
ưХե줬񤬻ɷ㤵롢ȤͤˤĤƤ
ǡ櫓ǤϤʤΤǤ

䤬Ȥϡ줫Ǥ

Ǥϡ˥ե򵯤ȤǤ顢ơܶԤ
֤顢񤬻ɷ㤵졢ʵΤ


⡢ͤƤߤƲ

եˤʤä顢ϻɷ㤵뤫

 

ΤˡϥѡեιǤϡβͤȸ
Ƥ櫓Ǥ顢ä龯Ǥ᤯ɬפʤΤ
ƤȤˤʤΤϡ褯狼뤳ȤǤ

Ǥϡʻ֤򵯤٤ȤΤǤ礦

ήФˤޤǼĥȤϤޤ

ꡢޥɤʥե򵯤٤ȤؼԤ


Ǥϡ1ǯ5%Ȥ10%ʪ夬褦ʾ֤ˤʤäȤơ
ϡ礹Ǥ礦

ξǤϡβͤ5%Ȥ10%Ȥ1ǯ˸
ȤȤʤΤǡͭ뤳ȤȤȤ
Ǥޤ

Ǥϡɤɤ򤹤Τ

եΨ5%10%˾徺ȡ餯徺
ϤǤ

ȤʤСǤäƤʤǡ¶ķʤɤΤǼ
ʬλ񻺤ͭƤСեˤ»뤳Ȥ򤢤
򤹤뤳Ȥϲǽˤʤޤ

ޤˤϡäꤹͤФƤǤ礦顢ե
ʤä񤬻ɷ㤵Ȥϸ¤ʤΤǤ


Ǥ⡢ʤȤ򤤤ȡΤ褦Ƚͽۤޤ

֤顢եˤʤäƤ⡢夲뤳ȤϤʤȡ
ͽջפɽƤФΤפȡ

줬롼ޥ󶵼10ǯۤܤФ륢ɥХ
Ǥ

ơˤСȤ񤷤Ǥȡ롼
ޥ󶵼餬ǧ᤿ȤȤˤʤޤ

ϡפޤ

ˡܶԤǤ⥤ե֤?

  ¨ե줬ȯƤ⡢Ķݻ顩

Ǥ⡢ǤäƤ⡢ֶ̱ԤϡեбƴȤؤ
ж夲褦ȤǤ礦

ǤʤȡⱿѼԤȤƤֶ̱Ԥϡ»Ƥޤޤ

ˤ⤦1ġ

ˡϥѡե줬ܤǵȤƤ⡢񤬳ȯ
ϡǤ

Τˡ̲ߤβͤ޷˼Ǥ顢й
˾ޤȤͤ櫓Ǥ

餯ʤСߤ褦ʤȤ򤻤ɥ桼
ܤǤѤΤȤǤϤʤΤǤ礦


ե򵯤ƾɷ㤹Ȥͤϡ֤⤷׹ͤ
ǤϤʤǤ礦

 

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