кѥ˥塼

޸Ρкѥ˥塼̤ưͻ֥Ǥϵ岹Ȳ˻ߤΤúи󾧤ޤиӽиȤϰ㤤ޤߤʴ㤤ΤǤ

2009ǯ07

ȷͳפȤͤޤ¸ΤǤ

ΤäƤ

Ǥ

ֱͤȤƤͤǤ

ǤǤ

ͤȤСҤޤ⡢ұȤ
Τޤ

ΰ̡ץ饤äơճäơ㡼ߥ󥰤ä
Ǥ礦͡

Ǥ⡢ȷͤξˤϡ̣ǤϤʤơ

֤ɤ̣

ƤΤȤΰ̣Ǥ

⡢񤯤Τ˾Ƥޤ

ʤȤ񤤤顢˾Ǥʤ褦˻פ뤫


Ǥ⡢ǤϤʤơΤ˾ǤΤǤ

ΤޤޤǤϡʤʤܤŸ˾Ƥޤ

顢ؤɬפΤǤ

ȷͤäޤ

Ĥ᤿λ䤬Τְ㤤ʤ

ǤϤϤ걧͡


ܿͤνͭʪǤϤʤ

ȯ˷㤷ߤĤΤϥͥȥ褿Ǥ

Ǥ⡢ⵤˤʤޤҤäȤ鱧ͤΤΡ


δȯɽФΥޥ˥եȤˤĤƤ

ʥޥ˥եȤǤϤʤפȡ

Ȥ˺ǤǼͭƤȤߤޤ

׵ѡ

ҤɿѤ

Сǯʡ˱Ƥ⡢⤬
ä塢ΤФ˰ۤ򿶤ޤƤΤ
Ǥ⤢ޤ

꡼ˤʤä顢⤹äƤ뤫⤷

ֶϷϤγϥΤΤǧƾ夲뤫顢֤ߤ

ʤȤϤʤǤ礦


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ꤤޤ
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䡢εͿʤȡۤޤ

εϡޥ˥եȤˤĤƤǤ

̱ޤΥޥ˥եȤɤߤޤ

Ǥ⡢ɤɤۤɡȽ򤷤ʤ뤫Ǥ

ȸäƻ䤬ߤͿޤٻ櫓ǤϤ


ȤäȤ򤷤Ƥ餤

줬ܲǤ

Ǥ⡢ޥ˥եȤˤĤƽ񤯤ȡɤƤ̱ޤȽˤʤäƤ
ޤޤ

ޥ˥եȤȤդ٤äƤޤ

̱ޤޥ˥եȤȯɽޤ̱ޤޥ˥եȤι
ȯɽƤޤ

1ۤɤ齰ı󤬤Τǡޥ˥եȡޥ˥ե
ȤȤäΤʬޤ

ľäơ

ϡޥ˥եȤȤդǤ

ǥޥ˥եȤʤƤȤʤФʤʤΤ

ޥ˥եȤʤƤ顢֥ޥ˥եȤäƲפȤ䤬
ޤ졢֤ΤȤפʤƲä蘆ΤǤ

䤬ʤȤȡ

Τ褦ȿͽۤޤ

֥ޥ˥եȤȤΤϡθȤϰ㤦ΤǤ򤤤Ĥޤ
ˤ뤫Ū˹̱餫ˤΤǤ

Ǥ⡢äѤꡢǤϤʤǤ礦

ȤդΥ᡼ɤʤʤ顢ޤζŪ«פȤ
äɤǤ礦

⤽ޥ˥եȤȤΤϡ

ֶפΡפȤ̣Ǥ͡

ǥޥ˥եȤΰ̣Ĵ٤Ƥߤޤ礦

manifesto

ȤȤȤʤäƤޤ

ɤˤ⡢ĤޤǤ˲뤫񤤤šʤƤȽ񤤤Ƥ

̱ޤǶޤDZƨƹԤäƤΤϡǤ⤫Ǥ⳰
Ρä˱ѹοФꤷ뤫Ǥ衣

äȤȾòṉ̀äʤȡ

Ϥȡ̱ޤΥޥ˥եȤ˲񤤤Ƥ뤫ߤƤߤޤ

顢ɸΤȤȻפޤ

̱ޤΥޥ˥եȤˤĤƤϡ⤤ޤ󡣤ޤʤ
ΤȯɽƤʤȤȡޤǤäƤȤߤš㤨
ǯθꡢɤʤȤ⤦ȿʤ


Ǥϡ̱ޤΥޥ˥եȤˤĤơ

ϡͥǥΤΥԡפФޤ

Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you
can do for
you.ʸȾϡask what you can do for your
country Ǥ͡
ְäƤޤѤߤޤ

 48ǯäǤ

ֹ񤬵˲Ǥ뤫ǤϤʤ˲򤹤뤳ȤǤ
뤫䤨

̱ޤΥޥ˥եȤˤϡϴޤ

ɡФ黵ŪʤӤӤȤǤϡɤޤƱ褦ʤ
ΤȤȤǤ

Ҷޤ줿55ߡ

ؤ´Ȥޤǡ26ߤǡǯ312߻ٵ롣

Ω⹻̵Ω⹻ʤ顢ǯ12ߡ24߻ٵ롣

ǯϺ7ߤݾڡ

Ǥѻߡ®ƻϩ̵

Ȥˤϸ̽

澮ȤˡΨ11˰

ȷˤϺ10߻ٵ롣


ФޤäФǤ

ˤϡɤطޤ󡣤פפ

СҶΤʽ̵ۤˤʤäȤ⡢1ǯ
ǯޤǤäΤפФޤ


Ҷޤ줿Ȥˤ館٤ϺǤ⤢
ǡ̤̱ȼΰƤǤϤʤ櫓ǤǤ⡢ɤβ
˴طʤΧˤ館ΤǤ硩

ϤȤΤʤʬʤǤϤޤ󤬡

ïǤ⤬館ʤơ

ҶˤĤƤϡ26ߤǡǯ312ߡ

Ǥβˤٵ뤷㤦ΤǤ礦

졢⸻äȤƤ⡢ΤǤϤʤǤ礦

ΤʤС¾ˤäͥŪˤٽФ٤ʬ뤫
Ǥ

Ǥ⡢ʤǤ⤫Ǥ⡢ҶҶǤ

ɡ̱Ť䤫äǤϤʤǤ礦


Ǹˡϵ岹ȲкˤĤƤ⡢ؤηäʤäפ
ޤ

̱ޤˤϡ᤯˷Ĥ˹αĤ
ꤷƤ餤Ȼפޤ

 ơ̱ˤäȹ׸ȵΧȤо줹뤳Ȥ
˾Ȼפޤ

ϰΤ˲ʤȤǤ׸뤳ȤǤ顢̱
ϡ´򴶤Ȼפޤ

ơϡɤɤ̱ޤʸդƤȹ
Ƥޤ




ȤϡȤΤ͡Ȼפäå򤪴ꤤ
ޤ
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Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

ƹνʤ3ǯ֤Ǿ徺ƻƤޤ

5SP/顼ʻؿƼ10ԻԷˤ
151.00Ȥʤꡢ150.38äȤΤǤ

ʤ㲼⤳ȿžȤȤˤʤΤǤ礦

⤷ȤСԤο⹥žϤǤ

Ǥ⡢ηкѻɸäդɬפʤΤǤ

顼ʻؿƼ10ԻԷˤκǯä
ưɤäƤߤޤ礦

1157.96
2154.60
3151.39
4150.38
5151.00

ǡǤ礦

Υ顼ʻؿϡ2000ǯ1100Ȥؿ
Ǥԡϡ2006ǯ6226.29Ǥ

ȤȤǡޤǤβΨ33ۤɤˤʤäƤޤŪ
ˤ2003ǯ7οˤޤäƤ櫓Ǥ

ͤ򼨤줿ǤϤ褯ĤʤǤ礦顢
դǤޤ礦

ʻؿ



































ɤǤ礦

㲼ƤʤǤ3֤ۤɤϡΥ
ɤߤޤäƤ褦˸ޤߤޤäɤ5϶
ʤ徺žȤ٤⤷ޤ


ƻƤȤϾʤΤǤνʻؿ
ؿǤꡢĴͤӤȡ5Ϥʤ㲼³
ƤΤǤ

Ǥ⡢ʤȤ;ƻʤΤޥߤȤΡ

޳뤤ࡼɤˤʤäƤΤˡšȤȤǤ礦

ˤƤ⡢ʤǤΤ⤷


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Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

άкä亮ȥǻϤޤޤ

ȤϤäƤ⡢餳äϹԤƤ櫓Ǥ顢
ۤܤʤƤšȤפΤǤХˤʤä
ϽƤγŤǡΰ̣ܤƤ褦Ǥ

ۥ磻ȥϥΥȤåȡȥХΤ
ԡʹȤǤޤ

ޤפʲĤŤˤϡĤΩΤͤ
ԡ򤹤ΤϡɤιΤɤȿǤƱȤȤʤΤǤ

ХΤΥԡϡ16ʬ֡

Ĺ

δνʹƤޤ


ƥӤǤҲ𤵤Ƥޤ͡

The relationship between the United States and China
will shape the 21st century, which makes it as important
as any bilateral relationship in the world.  T

ƹδط21ۤȤˤʤǤơξ
δط¾ǡʤ2֤δطפʤΤȤʤ

äѤG2λǤ

¦μº򤯤ޤ


Ǥ⡢ɤ̮ǽФƤΤǤ礦

Today, we look out on the horizon of a new century. 
And as we launch this dialogue, it's important for us
to reflect upon the questions that will shape the 21st
century. 

桹Ͽʿ򸫤Ƥ롣ơä
桹ϡ21ĤϹͤ뤳Ȥ
פ


Will growth be stalled by events like our current
financial crisis, or will we cooperate to create balanced
and sustainable growth, lifting more people out of
poverty and creating a broader prosperity around the
world?

ַкĹϡǶζͻΤ褦ʽˤä˸뤳
ȤΤϡ¿ο͡ϺߤФ
˱ɤ򹭤ĤġХ󥹤ΤȤ줿ơ³ǽʷк
Ÿ뤿˶Ϥ뤳ȤˤʤΤ

Will the need for energy breed competition and climate
change, or will we build partnerships to produce clean
power and to protect our planet?

֥ͥ륮Фפȵư®뤳Ȥˤ
Τϡ桹ϡ꡼󥨥ͥ륮Фˡ
Ƥϵ뤿˶ۤȤˤʤΤ


Will nuclear weapons spread unchecked, or will we
forge a new consensus to use this power for only peaceful
purposes? 

ֳʼ郎ȻΤϡ˳ȯǽϤʿѤΤ
ˤΤѤ뤳Ȥ˿˹դ뤳ȤˤʤΤ


Will extremists be able to stir conflict and division,
or will we unite on behalf of our shared security? 

ָԤΩ뤳ȤǤ褦ˤʤΤϡ
桹ϡ̤ΰΤ˰ķ뤹Τ


Will nations and peoples define themselves solely by 
their differences, or can we find common ground
necessary to meet our common challenges, and to
respect the dignity of every human being?

ֹȤ̱²ϡ㤤ˤäƤΤߵꤵΤϡ桹
ζ̤λΩɬפ롢ƤޤƤ
͡ººŤ뤿ɬפȤ롢̤Ωȯ
뤳ȤǤΤ

We can't predict with certainty what the future will
bring, but we can be certain about the issues that will
define our times.  And we also know this:

ֲ桹ϡ褬ɤʤ뤫οäͽ뤳ȤϤǤʤ
桹λŤˤĤƤϡοƤ롣
ơ桹ϤޤΤȤʬäƤ


ơΥƥ󥹤о줹ΤǤ

  The relationship between the United States and China 
will shape the 21st century, which makes it as important
as any bilateral relationship in the world. 


ޡꤹꡢȤǤ

ϡɤʤȤäƤΤ

̱Υ졼Ȥڤ夲ȤϸäƤʤΤ

͸ºŤȤϸäƤʤΤ


¦˵ȤΤ褦ʤȤäˤȤɤޤäƤ
ΤǤ

 We can promote financial stability through greater
transparency and regulatory reform.  We can pursue 
trade that is free and fair, and seek to conclude 
an ambitious and balanced Doha Round agreement.

ֲ桹ϡƩ夵ƵפԤȤˤäƶͻ
ΰ¥ʤ뤳ȤǤ롣桹ϡͳǸǰפɵ
뤳ȤǤŪǶѹդμ줿ɡϥɤιդ˷
Ĥ뤳Ȥ뤳ȤǤ

 

 And as Americans save more and Chinese are able to
spend more, we can put growth on a more sustainable 
foundation -- because just as China has benefited
from substantial investment and profitable exports,
China can also be an enormous market for American
goods.

֥ꥫͤäߤ򤷡ͤäȾ򤹤뤳Ȥ
ǤС桹ϡкĹäȻ³ǽξ˾褻뤳
ȤǤ

 

For instance, the United States respects the progress 
that China has made by lifting hundreds of millions
of people out of poverty.  Just as we respect China's 
ancient and remarkable culture, its remarkable
achievements, we also strongly believe that the religion
and culture of all peoples must be respected and
protected, and that all people should be free to speak
their minds.  And that includes ethnic and religious 
minorities in China, as surely as it includes minorities
within the United States.

㤨Сƹϡ񤬲ͤο͡ϺߤФ
˷ɰդʧΰʸʸ˲桹ɰդʧ褦ˡ
ϰζȤǤꡢƤ̱²νʸºŤʤ
Фʤʤȿ롣ơƤο͡ϡͳȯ뤳Ȥ
ʤФʤʤˤϡƹΥޥΥƥޤΤƱ
褦̱²ŪޥΥƥϽŪʥޥΥƥޤ

Support for human rights and human dignity is ingrained
in America.  Our nation is made up of immigrants from
every part of the world.  We have protected our unity
and struggled to perfect our union by extending basic
rights to all our people.  And those rights include 
the freedom to speak your mind, to worship your God,
and to choose your leaders.  These are not things that
we seek to impose -- this is who we are.  It guides our
openness to one another and to the world.

ֿ͸ȿʹ֤ººŤϥꥫǤϺդƤ롣桹ι
ϡΤȤΰ̱ǽ夬äƤ롣桹
Ƥο͡˴ŪʸͿ뤳ȤˤäơݻƤ
ޤʤΤˤ褦ؤƤΤ褦ʸ
ɽμͳޤޤ뤷Ĥμͳޤޤ롣ޤ꡼
ָޤޤ롣ϡ桹ʤ˲ݤȤƤ
뤳ȤǤϤʤϡ桹θ¤ʤΤ뤳Ȥˤäơ
桹¾ι䡢ФƳ줿֤Ǥ뤳ȤǤ


ХΤϡһҤθդޤǻФޤ

Thousands of years ago, the great philosopher Mencius
said: "A trail through the mountains, if used, becomes 
a path in a short time, but, if unused, becomes blocked
by grass in an equally short time."

ǯһҤϸä

ֻƻϡ̤ͤСƻˤʤ롣̤ͤ
ȡƱͤľ̤ʤʤäƤޤ

ʤȤһҤϸäƤΤǤ礦

ХΤһҤθդѤƤԥȤޤ͡





ƹ¦ϡ˵ȤäƤʡȻפäå
ꤤޤ
↓↓↓
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Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

񤬷ʵ岡뤿ᡢɲûɷθƤä
ƻƤޤ

񤬡ƱԶæФ뤿Ǥäư
εϤϡʤ50ߤεϤ˾ޤ

GDPϡޤ500ߤˤϻäƤʤǤ礦顢GDP
1ʾεۤεϤˤʤäƤ櫓Ǥ

ꥫƹ󾧤Τ2ۤɤκư򤷤褦Ȥ
ȤǤ
ơͶEUϡNo ȡ

ϡͽФƤ櫓Ǥ

Τ⤢äƤ46μ¼GDPĹΨϡ
ǯƱ7.9ˡ

¼ΨǤۤ8Ǥ顢ǤСե줬ۤˤ
ꤽǤ

ˤ䤫˥֥졼򤫤뤳ȤʤȡšȻפ
⤤뤫⤷ޤ

ϡޤޤ­ʤȹͤƤ褦ʤΤǤ

8Ĺˤϡΰʤ夲ɬפʤΤȤ

ȤȤǡֲŲȽ롢ȡ

Ų٤Ȥϡŵʤ¼ڤ٤Τ褦ǡ
¼οͤŤ㤦ȡ⤬ٵ뤵ΤȤ

ޤǤϡʤ13⤬ڤƤȡ

âʤξ¤350049ߡˤ˸¤Ƥᡢ

ʤˤϲäڤФʤäȡ

ǡ٤ϡ¤űѤλٵۤ˸٤ߤ
뤳Ȥˤ褦ȡ


ޤˤƤ⡢¼кĹΨ7.9⤢񤬤ޤޤ
ʵɷ㤹ɬפȤ顢Ի׵Ĥʵޤ

⡢פޤ󤫡

Ǥ⡢ɤϡޤǤΤǤ礦

ϡɤƤ¼8ʾηкŸ

ޤǤηкѤϡ͢Ф礭äƤޤ

͢Фʤʤ褷ˤʤΤǤ

Τ

ϡƹηʵΥԡɤˤƴǤ뤫Ǥ


Сʥ󥭵Ĺϡ26ꥫPBSȤǷʵ̤ˤ
ƸäƤޤ

Our best guess, and it's only a guess, is that growth
in the second half of the year will be about 1 percent
on an annual basis. So that's not enough to bring down
the unemployment.

 ֲ桹θ̤ϡǯǯȾĹΨϡǯΨ1٤ˤ
ΤȤߤƤ롣äơΨˤϽʬǤϤʤ

ꥫκǯȾηкĹΨϡ1

Ǥϡ񤫤͢Ф޲뤳ȤϤȤƤ⸫ޤ

Ǥ顢ΤޤäƤȡ8ηкĹϤȤƤ
ΤǤ

ȤСǤʤȤʤ

ơΤȤϡƹФ˾Ȥޥå롣

άкäϡ2728ȥ亮ȥdz뤳Ȥˤ
äƤꡢߥŪˤ⥰Ǥ

֤Ǥ⡢⸻ϡ

ܤˤȤäơ⸻ϿۤʤΤǤ礦

Ǥ⤪äơǺư뤳ȤǽʤΤǤ

ơС̱졼Ȥξ徺ޤ뤳ȤǽΤʤ
ΤǡĻȤ櫓Ǥ

ȤȤǡäϡ׿񤤤³Ȼפޤ

 

ƹϡФ̱ڤ夲򶯤뤳ȤϤǤʤ
ΤʡȻפäå򤪴ꤤޤ
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Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

ХΤݸٲפǮ˴ĥäƤȻפä
顢٤϶פǤ

ϡΤ褦ưɤפޤ

ꥫˤϡ4700̵ͤݸԤȸޤפ
ˡݸڤʤΤǡµˤʤäƤ±˹Ԥʤͤ
4700ͤ⤤ȤȤǤ

줬ꥫθ¤ʤΤȻפäƤޤޤ

¾ǡ˻ƤڥåȤϡµˤʤȡݸ
ϸʤΤ˽ð夵˿ǻƤäƤΤǤ͡


ХΤϡפˤǮǤ

פʤˤϡꥫηкѤ«ʤȡ

ΤϡפˤĤƤϡɤΤ褦ʤȤäƤ
ΤǤ礦

Ƥ϶ˤ

ҶӤ夬ä顢դε夲롣ӤȿǤ
ʤСĤޤǤϾ夬ʤ

졢ܤήԤϰʬȿƤ褦ʵ

äơǤΤǤϤʤϢˮܤȥ뤷
褦ȤƤ櫓Ǥ顣

ˤĤơܤȤδۤʹƤߤΤǤ


Because improving education is central to rebuilding
our economy, we set aside over $4 billion in the
Recovery Act to promote improvements in schools. 

ֶפкѺƷ濴ȤʤΤ顢桹ϡعβ
¥ʤΤˡʵˡΥץΤʤ40ɥʬΥ
ѤΩƤ


This is one of the largest investments in education
reform in American history.  And rather than divvying
it up and handing it out, we are letting states and
school districts compete for it. 

֤ϡꥫ˾ζ1Ĥơ
ΤʬͿΤǤϤʤع϶褴Ȥ˶褵뤳
Ȥˤ


That's how we can incentivize excellence and spur 
reform and launch a race to the top in America's public
schools.

֤СͥʤΤ˥󥻥ƥ֤Ϳ뤳ȤǤפ
ŤơꥫθˤơȥåפؤζϤ
뤳ȤǤΤ


That race starts today.  I'm issuing a challenge to 
our nation's governors, to school boards and principals 
and teachers, to businesses and non-for-profits, to 
parents and students:

֤ζϤ롣ϡλѰ񡢹Ĺա
ȡNPOơƤ̤ФƻͿ

if you set and enforce rigorous and challenging
standards and assessments;

֤⤷ʤǤġǽϤɾˡߤơ
¹ԤС


if you put outstanding teachers at the front of the 
classroom;

֤⤷ȴǤΩ

if you turn around failing schools

֤⤷ܤ줿عΩľ


-- your state can win a Race to the Top grant that will 
not only help students outcompete workers around the
world, but let them fulfill their God-given potential.

ֵνϡ֥ȥåפؤΥ졼פǤˤä
ϫƯԤȤζǤİȤʤǤ
ʤͿǽϤȯǤ뤳Ȥˤʤ


This competition will not be based on politics or ideology
or the preferences of a particular interest group. 
Instead, it will be based on a simple principle -- whether 
a state is ready to do what works. 

֤ζϡȤǥȤΤιߤˤ
ΤǤϤʤǤʤñʸ˴ŤƤ롣ȽȤ
ƵǽΤԤȤǤƤ뤫ȡ

We will use the best evidence available to determine 
whether a state can meet a few key benchmarks for
reform -- and states that outperform the rest will be 
rewarded with a grant. 

ֽפΤμפʴȤǤ뤫ɤˤ
ơɤȽǺѰդƤ롣¾ν˾äƤȽ
줿ˤ⤬ٵ뤵

Not every state will win and not every school district 
will be happy with the results.

ƤνǤ櫓ǤϤʤƤγع褬
̤­Ǥ櫓ǤϤʤ


But America's children, America's economy, and
America itself will be better for it.

֤ꥫλҶƥꥫηкѡޤꥫ
ϡˤäƿ⤹


Better standards.  Better teaching.  Better schools. 
Data-driven results. 

֤ɤࡣɤɤعǡ¥줿
̡


That's what we will reward with our Race to the Top
Fund.

֤줬ȥåפؤζȤѤͿоݤ

But as I've said before, fixing the problem in our schools
is not a task for Washington alone.  It will take school
administrators, board presidents, and local union leaders 
making collective bargaining a catalyst -- and not an 
impediment -- to reform. 

֤˽Ҥ٤褦ˡ桹γعľΤϡñ˥亮
ȥλŻǤϤʤϡѰĹȹ
λƳԤפΤ˸ȤʤΤǤϤʤפο
ȤʤΤ򾡤ʤФʤʤ


It will take business leaders asking what they can do
to invest in education in their communities.  It will
take parents asking the right questions at their child's 
school, and making sure their children are doing their 
homework at night.

֤ޤȤΥ꡼ϡ줾ϰˤƶ
뤿ˡ餬ʤȤǤ뤫ʤФʤʤ
ƤϡҶγعŪΤʼԤҶ롢
򤹤뤳Ȥμ¤ˤʤФʤʤ


And it will take students -- I'm not worried about 
Matthew, but all the other ones -- (laughter) --
including my daughters -- showing up for school on time 
and paying attention in class. 

֤̤ϡšޥå塼ΤȤˤϿۤƤʤš
̼ޤٹ碌йơ
ʤФʤʤ


Ultimately, their education is up to them.  It's up to 
their parents.  It's up to their teachers.  It's up to 
all of us.

ֺǽŪˤϡ鼫ȤʤΤơޤƤ
ʤΤޤǤ⤢ꡢ桹ƤʤΤ


I'll never forget a school I visited one day when I was 
a community organizer in Chicago.  As I walked around 
the school with the principal, I remember saying to her 
how wonderful it was to see all these kids so full of
energy and hope and the spark in their eye.

ֻϡ䥷ϰÿͤ򤷤ƤäǤ뤬
ˬ줿ع褷˺뤳ȤϤʤιĹȳعβ
ƤȤλҶդǡܤ򥭥饭餵Ƥ
Ȥ餷ȤȡĹ˸äȤФƤ


And when he asked them what they were going to be
when they grew up, they said, we're going to be doctors
and lawyers and they all had these big dreams for the
future. 

֤ơҶˡ礭ʤä鲿ˤʤΤʹ顢Ҷ
ϡԤˤʤȤ۸Τˤʤȸäˤϡ礭
̴äΤ


And I remember the principal saying that soon all that
would change; that in a year or two, something would 
shut off inside as they began to realize their hopes
wouldn't come to pass -- not because they weren't smart
enough, not because they weren't talented enough, but 
because they didn't see a pathway to success.

֤ơĹ̴⤹ѤΤ衢ȤäȤФƤ
롣1ǯ2ǯ⤹С̴¸ΤǤʤȤҶ
򤷻Ϥȡϡ餬ƬɤʤäȤ
ǽ­ʤäȤΤǤϤʤΤˡʬ
ʤäʤΤ


And that's true of too many children in this country. 
Maybe they don't have a great teacher.  Maybe they
don't find their classes exciting.  Maybe they aren't being 
challenged at school.  Maybe their parents aren't pushing 
them the way they need to.  Maybe nobody is setting
high expectations for them.  Maybe they can't afford a
college education.  Maybe they don't know anybody
who's ever gone to college. 

֤ϡιˤ;ˤ¿λҶθ¤ʤΤɤ
˽ʤäΤ⤷ʤȤ򤯤ʤΤ⤷
ʤޤ񤷤꤬ݤƤʤ餫⤷ʤ
ƤɬפƳʤ餫⤷ʤؤ˹Ԥ;
͵ʤ餫⤷ʤؤ˹ԤäԤΤʤ餫⤷
ʤ


And the reason you're here, the reason Arne is here, 
the reason I'm here, is to make sure that we are giving 
all of those children, all our children, the pathways 
they need to make the most of their abilities; to make 
the most of their opportunities; to make the most of 
their lives.

ֵͳϡš󤬤ͳϡơ
ˤͳϡλҶˡǽϤ
ȯǤ褦ˤ뤿ɬפʼʤͿ뤳ȤǤ롣ε
ˡơڤˤ뤿ˡ

 


ǸʬϡȤäʤΤǤХΤƤ
뤳ȤˤʤΤǤ礦


ХΤˤϡʤɤ餻ȾʡȻפ
å򤪴ꤤޤ
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Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

ʿ21ǯǯкѺȯɽˤʤޤ

ǯΥȥϡִιȻ³ŪؤŸ˾פǤ

ޤȤ򤸤ä긫Ƥ֤ʤΤǤͥåȾ
Τ߳ǧޤΤˤʤäҤ򤴾Ҳ𤷤ޤ


ֺζͻˤơʤγԾǤζϤ
ǰƤ뤬ʤǤ뼫ư֡ȾƳ
ǤΥϰݻʤ徺Ƥ

äȰ¿ޤ


ִᡢϤ򶯲뤿ˤϡ泫ȯ
ŪܤؤդʤȤܤǤ

ΤȤǤ礦륵ɤŻ뤷ȤƤϡΰո
ٻޤ


ֲ椬ɺĸꤷɤߤפ̤Ĺβ
ŦǤ줤и⤢ꡢǤΰưα߳경ޤ뤳Ȥ
פǤ

ȤˤäİߤƤǤͿޤޤ⡣


ưϡʹǶ̤ưǤ뤬ݸ
ȡѤؤΰ¸ޤ뷹ˤ롣äȤ⡢
ϸݸٹ礤ϴˤǤ뤬ʤǤ

⡢ȤˤϼˤΤǤϤʤǤ礦

ָݸǤϡʿѼȴ֤Ĺ뷹

ƱǤ

ͤ⡢ݥȤǤ⤴ˤʤäƤǡǤ礦


ޤȤʤȤäƤʡȻפäå򤪴ꤤޤ
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ݸפ¡ʤ̷դ򼨤Ƥ륪ХΤǤ
Τ22εԲ񸫤ǼΤ褦ʤȤäȤ

ͻؤƤӼԤȤʤ˶ͻפɬפǡꥹ
ι⤤ͻͻʡʥǥХƥ֡ˤʤɤμˤĤƶ
ͻؤΡݸפħ뤳Ȥ⥢ǥΰĤȡ

פˡ絬ϤʶͻؤߤϡǶǤϤʤͻȳ
Ȥôȡ


Υ˥塼ʹơ䡢äޤ

Υǥ̤ơȥåդǤ碌ǽФƤ
ƤʤΤȴǤ

 

ˤƤ⡢οõ뤿ˡºݤˤɤȯ
ǧޤ礦

 

QUESTION: And also, would you consider going a step
further than your regulatory reform proposals and
supporting a fee on risky activities that go beyond
traditional lending?

ֵϡͻפ򤵤˿ʤĤʤΤơ
ŪͻƤĶꥹι⤤ФƤϰβݶ
ݤ뤳ȤٻĤ꤫

OBAMA: We were on the verge of a complete financial
meltdown. And the reason was because Wall Street took 
extraordinary risks with other people's money. They
were peddling loans that they knew could never be paid
back.

ֲ桹ϡͻʥΩäƤϡ륹ȥ꡼Ȥ
ʤꥹäƤ¾ͤΤǡϡ
褷ֺѤʤ뤳ȤʤΤäƤĸ⤤

They were flipping those loans and leveraging those
loans and higher and higher mountains of debt were 
being built on loans that were fundamentally unsound.
And all of us now are paying the price.

ϡĸҤä֤ƥХå򤫤
ʼڶλѤߤäμڶϡŪ
˷Ǥʤξ˾ääΤơ桹
ʧäƤ


Now, I believe it was the right thing to do -- as
unpopular as it is, it was the right thing for us to
do to step in to make sure that the financial system
did not collapse, because things would be even worse
today had those steps not been taken.

ֺȤʤäƤϡƶͻƥबʤ褦ˤȤ
äȿƤ롣äȤ⡢͵Τ뤳ȤǤϤʤȤ
Τ⡢⤷ʤä顢֤Ϥ˰Ƥ

It originated under the Bush administration. We
continued it because, whether you're on the left
or the right, if you talk to economists, they said 
that this could have the kinds of consequences that
would have dropped us into a deep depression, and
not simply a very severe recession.

֤ϥ֥åǻϤޤäΤ桹ϤƧ
οʹ֤οʹ֤˹餺⤷ΥߥȤ
̤顢ϡʵȤ٤ΤΤˤȤɤޤ餺
˴٤뤳ȤˤʤäǤȡäǤ


Now, one of the success stories of the past six
months is that we really have seen a stabilization
in the financial system. It's not where it needs to
be. But people are no longer talking about the financial
system falling off a cliff. We've stepped away from the
brink.

֤ơ6᤿Τ1Ĥͻƥΰ
경Ǥꡢ˲桹Ϥܷ⤷ƤΤǤ롣ͻ
ƥϡʤ麣Ǥäȴʾ֤ˤäϤ
͡ϤϤͻƥˤĤƤϸˤ뤳ȤϤʤ
桹ϡäפϱΤƤ

And that's important because what it means is,
there are a lot of companies right now that can go
into the marketplace and borrow money to fund
inventory, fund payroll, and that will help the economy
grow as a whole.

֤ơ줬פʤȤʤΤǤ롣ȤΤ⡢Τ
ȤϡԾ˽и߸˻ΤΤʧ
ΤΤڤ뤳ȤǤҤ¸ߤƤȤ
ȤǤꡢˤäƷкѤŪĹ뤿μ
ʤ뤫

The problem is, now that the financial system has
bounced back, what you're seeing is that banks are
starting to make profits again. Some of them have
paid back the TARP money that they received, the bank
bailout money that they received. And we expect more
of them to pay this back. That's a good thing.

ϡͻƥबƤƤꡢܷ⤷Ƥ
ΤϡԤƤפФƤȤȤΤʤˤϡ
줿TARPֺѤԤ⤢롣TARPȤϡԵߺ
ΤλΤȤ¿ζԤֺѤԤǤ
ϤȤ


And we also think it's a good thing that they're
profitable again. Because if they're profitable,
that means that they have reserves in place and they 
can lend. And this is America, so if you're profitable 
in the free market system, then you benefit.

֤ơ餬Ƥפ󤲤褦ˤʤäȤɤȤ⤷
餬פ󤲤Сαݤ¿ʤͻ˲󤹤ȤǤ
줬ꥫ顢⤷ͳԾβפ
뤳ȤǤСˤ벸äڤ֤Τ

But what we haven't seen, I think, is the kind of
change in behavior and practices on Wall Street that 
would ensure that we don't find ourselves in a fix 
again, where we've got to bail out these folks while 
they're taking huge risks and taking huge bonuses.

֤桹ǧǤƤʤΤϡ륹ȥ꡼Ȥιư
Ѳ⤷餬ޤǤΤѤΤǤС
桹Ϳ뤳ȤϤϤɬפʤʤǤ桹ϡ餬
ʤꥹꡢƵۤΥܡʥǡ
ߤʤФʤʤäΤ褦ʤȤʤʤΤ

 

So what do I think we need to do?  We've got to pass
financial regulatory reform. And, you know, this is
an example of where folks say, well, you know, should
the Obama administration be taking on too much?

֤ǡ桹ϲ򤹤٤ʤΤ桹϶ͻפԤ
ФʤʤΤΤȤꡢ줬Хɬˤʤä
ȤޤʤФʤʤΰĤʤΤ

The fact of the matter is if we don't pass financial
regulatory reform, then banks are going to go back to
the same things that they were doing before. In some 
ways, it could be worse because now they know that
the federal government may think that they're too big
to fail. And so if they're unconstrained they could
taken even more risks.

֤⤷ͻפ̤ʤȤСԤϡޤƱ褦ʤ
򤹤ǤʤȤ̣äȰ֤ˤʤ롣
ΤʤСϡϢˮܤ礭٤ʤפȹͤǤ
ȤȤ褯ΤäƤ뤫äơ⤷󤬤ʤС
ޤǰʾΥꥹ뤳Ȥ

And so there are a number of elements of financial
regulatory reform. With respect to compensation, I'd
like to think that people would feel a little remorse
and feel embarrassed and would not get million-dollar
or multimillion-dollar bonuses.

ֶͻפȤϤ롣󽷤ˤĤƤϡ餬
ɿդ򴶤ɴɥΥܡʥʤߤ

But if shame does not work, then I think one proposal
that I put forward is to make sure that at least
shareholders of these companies know what their
executives are being compensated. And that may force
some reductions.

֤⤷ѤΤʤСΤȤˤ1ĤƤ򤷤
ʤƤ⡢βҤγˤϡϢ椬󽷤¤
Τ餻٤Ǥ롣СĤϤˤʤǤ

For banks that are still receiving taxpayer assistance,
we have a set of rules that gives us some control on
reducing unwarranted compensation.

̤ǼǼԤλٱƤԤФƤϡ󽷤򸺳ۤ
ؼԤȤˤƤ

And in terms of the last point that you made which 
is the possibility of fees for transactions that we want
to discourage, that is one of the ideas that is going to
be working its way through the process.

ֵ䤷ǸĤޤꡢ䤿ߤᤵȻפ
˲ݶݤȤǽϡǥΰĤǤꡢ
Ǥ


I think, at minimum, what we want do is to make sure
that -- to the extent at that federal government is
going to have to be a backstop just like the Federal 
Deposit Insurance Corporation, what everybody is
familiar with, FDIC, the reason that when you put your
deposits in your bank, you can have confidence that
they're insured, that's paid for through bank fees.

ֺ¡桹ԤȤϡϢˮܤ¶ݸҤΤ褦
ǸθȤʤʤФʤʤȤˡΤλ⤬
μ̤ƻʧȤȤμ¤ˤ뤳Ȥ¶
ҤϤʤߤȻפ¶¤Ƥ⡢ˤ
ݸäƤΤǰ¿Ƥ뤳ȤǤ


We may need to make sure that there is a similar
mechanism in place for some of these other far-out 
transactions.

ֲ桹ϡ¾ѤäˤĤƤƱͤλȤߤݤɬ
뤫⤷ʤ

So if you guys want to do them, then you've got to
put something into the kitty to make sure that if you 
screw up, it's not taxpayer dollars that have to pay 
for it, but it's dollars coming out of your profits.

ֽäơ⤷ԤΤǤС
ȤˤϡΤʧäƤ餤⤷ԤƤ⡢
ΤǼǼԤΤǤʤפΤʤDZФ
ˤʤФʤʤ


ޤɤȡХΤθȤ褯ʬޤ

̱ˤٻͤ¿Ǥ礦


Ǥ

ꥹ礭ߤߤܤͤʤơΤ
ǷΤǤ礦

Ρ̾ͻˤƤ⡢ͻλӤʤɤˤäƤϡ
ѥꥹʰƷ⤢ϤǤ

ʤΤˡɤä򤹤ȤΤǤ礦

ʬޤš褯褯٤Ȼפޤ




äꤢ꤫ʡȻפäå򤪴ꤤޤ
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Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

FRBΥСʥ󥭵ĹIJڸΩޤ

ʵͽۤ˴ؤȯߤƤߤޤ礦


Better conditions in financial markets have been
accompanied by some improvement in economic
prospects.

ֶͻԾξƤ뤳Ȥˤꡢʵ̤Ƥ


Consumer spending has been relatively stable so far
this year, and the decline in housing activity appears
to have moderated.

ֺǯϡޤǤΤȤٽФŪꤷƤꡢޤ
Ծ⸺ˤ䤫ˤʤäƤƤ褦ˤߤ


Businesses have continued to cut capital spending
and liquidate inventories, but the likely slowdown
in the pace of inventory liquidation in coming quarters
represents another factor that may support a turnaround
in activity.

ִȤϡ³︺ޤ߸ȤƤ
뤬塢ˤäƺ߸ȿžԤ


Although the recession in the rest of the world led to
a steep drop in the demand for U.S. exports, this drag
on our economy also appears to be waning, as many of
our trading partners are also seeing signs of
stabilization.

ƹ񤬷ʵ˴٤äȤˤꡢƹ͢Ф
줿ηޤĤĤ褦˸롣ǰ
ˤĤƤ⡢경뤫Ǥ


Despite these positive signs, the rate of job loss
remains high and the unemployment rate has continued
its steep rise. Job insecurity, together with declines
in home values and tight credit, is likely to limit
gains in consumer spending.

֤ˤ⹴餺ѤӼΨ⤯Ψϰ³
޾徺Ƥ롣Ѥ԰ꤵʤ㲼ͻ
ȲޤäơäޤǤȤߤ


The possibility that the recent stabilization in
household spending will prove transient is an important
downside risk to the outlook.

ֲȷפλٽФǶꤷƤƤ뤬줬ŪʤΤǤ
Сηʵ̤βꥹȤʤ


In conjunction with the June FOMC meeting, Board
members and Reserve Bank presidents prepared
economic projections covering the years 2009 through
2011.

6FOMCβȰˤʤꡢΥСȳϤϰ
Ϣۤϡ2009ǯ2011ǯޤǤηʵ̤


FOMC participants generally expect that, after declining 
in the first half of this year, output will increase
slightly over the remainder of 2009.

FOMCλüԤϡơǯȾΥޥʥĹθ塢2009
ǯθȾˤGDPϤĹ뤳ȤͽۤƤ


The recovery is expected to be gradual in 2010, with
some acceleration in activity in 2011.

ֲΥڡϡ2010ǯˤϴˤ䤫ʤΤ˻ߤޤꡢ2011ǯˤ
ưʬ®ȤߤƤ


Although the unemployment rate is projected to peak
at the end of this year, the projected declines in 2010
and 2011 would still leave unemployment well above
FOMC participants' views of the longer-run sustainable
rate.

ּΨϡǯǯ˥ԡǤĤȤߤ뤬2010ǯڤ
2011ǯ˼Ψ㲼Ƥ⡢ĹŪ˰ݻǽǤȤߤ
ΨϤ뤫ĶˤȤɤޤͽۤ


All participants expect that inflation will be somewhat
lower this year than in recent years, and most expect it
to remain subdued over the next two years.

ƤλüԤϡեΨϡǯϡǯοʬ㤤
ͽۤƤꡢޤ¿λüԤϡ2ǯ٤ϡե
Ψ㤤ޤޤͽۤƤ


ȤȤǡƥݥȤޤȤƤߤޤ礦

GDP2009ǯβȾ˲˸âΥڡ2010
 ǯϴˤ䤫

ѡ2009ǯԡθ2ǯ֤ۤɤϹ
ܡ

ʪ2011ǯޤǤǿܡ


ǡǤ礦

ޤǯθȾˤϾIJ˸ȤäƤޤ
θäϡˤƴˤ䤫ʲˤȤɤޤǤȤߤƤȤ
ȤǤ

ϡкѤޤ礭Ĺ뤲褦ˤʤäƤ⡢
ϡ˿ηкѤˤʤ뤳ȤˤäƼ¸ΤǤ
ơʹȿκϡס̾ȡͽۤޤ


ʹ¦餹СѤβ٤뤳Ȥ椤Ȥ
礦äܤۤСˤư¤¶ƯƤϫ
ƯԤ¿¸ߤƤȤȤ⡢ʾ礭ʤΤ

ʹ֤ϡɤƤ⼫ʬΤȡϼΤȤˤΤܤ
ΤǵҴŪȽǤ񤷤ʤäƤޤΤǤ礦



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äȽı򻶤ޤ

ССС

ƥӤѤƤԤϡɤФ򤹤ΤȻפäƤޤޤ
餯İ¿⡢ͳʬʤޤФȶǤΤ
ʤǤ礦

ޤäƤ뤫ʬʤ

ФȤǤⶫФʤȡƧڤ꤬Ĥʤ

ʤƻפäƤΤǤϤʤǤ礦


ˤƤ⡢θȤϡԻ׵ĤʤȤФǤ

ޤޤ³Τʬޤݻ
Τʬޤ

ȤäơϤޤ


ϡʵࡪ

졢ȤǡϤäǤϤʤǤ礫

ޤǤ⡢䤸㥰ȤΤǤСʬʤǤ⤢
ޤ󡣡

ܤʴ餷ƸǤš

ˡϡ꡼ޥ󥷥å顢ܷкѤ3ǯ
ȸäƤǤ硩

ǡθ⡢3ǯȤǤѤäƤʤΤ
⡢3ǯʤƸäƤޤʤΤǤ

꡼ޥ󥷥åä顢3ǯӤƤ褵š
ϡθ塢ʵкǤä餽θ̤Фơ
Ȥ

ʤȤϲ鷺ˡ

ޤʵкΤˤȤȤʤ顢ïǤǤ뤳ȤǤ
ɤޤäƤ褦ʤΤǤ礦

ϡ̱ɤޤ򤹤ΤȤΤ
ȸޤäựǤ

⤦򸫤Ĥ뤳ȤϤǤʤäΤǤ礦

ˤƤ⡢ϡη̤ФޤǤδ֤ɤ
ΤǤ礦

θ夬ʤ褦ɬ񹳤ΤǤ礦

Ȥ⡢äƤ⤤褦ˡƬǤ⤷ԤĤĤ
Ǥ礦

ƬΤνΤȤǤ

ȤѤȤ⡢ơŷ꤬褦Ȥ⡢ν
٤³뤳ȤǤ礦

Τ鷺Ĺִν٤¸ߤƤǤ顣


ΤޤޤǤϡΨ٤¸Ƥޤޤ
̣ǡ󥸤ɬפʤΤǤϤʤǤ礦

줳Ȼפޤ


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ޤ
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