кѥ˥塼

޸Ρкѥ˥塼̤ưͻ֥Ǥϵ岹Ȳ˻ߤΤúи󾧤ޤиӽиȤϰ㤤ޤߤʴ㤤ΤǤ

2011ǯ04

Сʥ󥭵ĹνεԲ񸫤Ԥ줿ǤԤ⤪Եɤ褦Ǥ͡

椬ˤƤ⡢ͼǵԲ񸫤ͤ󤸤ƤޤꥫƻߤƤߤޤ
礦͡

Բ񸫤򤹤ͳ

I personally have always been a big believer in providing as much information as you can
to help the public understand what you're doing, to help the markets understand what you're
doing, and to be accountable to the public for what you're doing.

ֻϡĿŪˤǤϤ뤬äƤ뤳Ȥ͡ˤ褯򤷤Ƥ餦ˤǤ¿ξͿ
٤ȤͤǤ롣СԾˤ桹äƤ뤳ȤʬäƤ餦ȤǤ뤷
Ǥ̤ȤǤ


Now, of course, the Fed didn't do this for a long time, and I think the counterargument has
always been that if -- there was a risk that the chairman speaking might create unnecessary
volatility in financial markets or may not be necessary, given all the other sources of --
of information that come out of the Federal Reserve.

֤ϢϡĹ֤¹ԤƤʤäĤȿаոäơšĤޤĹȯ뤳
ǶͻԾɬפʥܥ饿ƥ⤿餷ꡢϢ䤫ξ󸻤¾˳ݤƤ뤫ɬפ
ʤȡš

It was our judgment after thinking about this for some time that, at this point, the additional
benefits from more information, more transparency, meeting the press directly, outweighed
some of these -- some of these risks.

֤ơʤλ֤򤫤ƸƤ̡Ǥϡ̤䤷ơƩȤˤ
ޤåȤ礭ȸ̤ˤʤäơľܵԲ񸫤򤹤뤳Ȥפꥹ礭Ƚ


ͻˤĤ


In terms of trying to help this economy stabilize and then recover, the Federal Reserve has
undertaken extraordinary measures. Those include, obviously, all the steps we took to
stabilize the financial system during the crisis, again, many of which were extraordinary
measures taken under extreme circumstances.


ַкѤ경뤿ˤäƤȤȸСϢϰ֤äƤȤȤ
κ˶ͻƥꤵ뤿μäƤ֡¿ϰʾǹԤ줿
֤Ǥä


Ū2ʡQE2

I do believe that the second round of securities purchases was effective. We saw that first
in the financial markets.

2ʤĹ㤤ϡͭäȻפͻԾǤθ̤򤹤˳ǧ

The way monetary policy always works is by easing financial conditions, and we saw
increases in stock prices. We saw reduced spreads in credit markets. We saw reduced
volatility.

ֶͻϡͻ¤̤ڤܤΤǤ뤬ξ徺ǧ줿ѻԾΥץå
̾ܥ饿ƥ⾮ʤä

We saw all the changes in financial markets, and quite significant changes, that one would
expect if one was doing an ordinary easing of policy via a reduced federal funds rate.

ֶͻԾǵäѲƳǧʤǤפʤΤϡեǥե󥺥졼Ȥ̾
ͻǤ롣줬ɤʤΤȡ

եͽ

As I have noted, inflation -- headline inflation is at least temporarily higher, being driven
by gasoline prices and some other commodity prices. Our expectation is that -- that inflation
will come down towards a more normal level, but we'll be watching that carefully.

֥եΨϡʤȤŪˤϹ⤤֤Ǥ롣ʤ¾ΰ켡ʤβʤαƶФƤ
롣եͽۤϡ줫㲼˸̾οˤޤDzǤտƤ
Ĥ

It's very hard to blame the American public for being impatient.

ֹ̱ǤʤǤΤ񤹤뤳ȤϤǤʤ

Conditions are far from where they -- where we would like them to be. The combination
of highunemployment, high gas prices and high foreclosure rates is a -- is a terrible
combination. A lot of people are having a very tough time.

־ϡ͡˾褦ʾ֤Ȥ󤤡⤤Ψȹ⤤ʡơ⤤Ψ
Ȥ߹碌¿οͤѤʾˤ


So, I can certainly understand why people are impatient. And I do think that the pace will
pick up over time. And I am very confident that, in the long run, that the U.S. will return to
being the most productive, one of the fastest growing and dynamic economies in the world.

֤顢͡ܤäƤͳ褯ʬ롣Υڡ®ޤʤǤĹŪˤϡ
ƹ񤬺ǤŪʹơǺǤĹ϶кѤȳοƤ롣

And it hasn't lost any of the basic characteristics that made it the pre-eminent economy
in the world before the crisis. And I think we will return to that status as we recover.

֤ơͻƹǤķȴкѤˤƹδŪĹϲ鼺ƤʤΤǤ
롣줫˽ϰ̤Ǥ

ѡʾϡǤ



ǡǤ礦ĤʪǻϤޤäFRBĹεԲ񸫤ǤäΤǤ뤳Ȥä
Ǥ礦

ԾطԤΤʤˤϡȤäȸԤ⤤褦ǤΤǤ礦

Bernanke was asked to define what an extended period means.

ơϡ

Extended period suggests that there would be a couple of meetings probably before
action, but unfortunately the reason we use this vaguer terminology is that we don't know
with certainty how quickly response will be required.

extended periodȤΤϡ餯ѹ˿β礬ȤȤˤʤ
ۣɽ桹Ȥͳϡɤۤ®䤫ѹɬפȤʤ뤫Τ뤳Ȥʤ
Ǥ

âդȤ⤭ΡβȸСʤƤ12֡Ĥޤ3Ϥ롢ȡޤ
ϡ³ޤ衢ˤǤ



ޤäϥɥˤʤ뤳ȤϤʤΤȻפäå򤪴ꤤפޤ

͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

פΤǤ衢󤸤㥤

ϡɤפޤ

֥ƧǤΤ褤

Ϥ

֤顢˥ǡƧǤ

ͭ񤦤ޤˤƤפǤšȷ󤬡˼
ʤƸΤǤƤޤޤ͡Ȥ
򼭤Ƥ⡢׽׽ǸФȤФ̱ϡ֤
פäƻפäƤǤʪˤʤʤ̤Ǥ͡ݥåݤ
θưϡ

Τˡı򻶤ʤ󤫤äƤ礫ȤפǤ
Ǥ⡢ƱˤɤΤȡˡͿޤޤǤ礦ȤΤǤ
Сʬʤʤ櫓ǤͿǤƤǤ顣᤯̱
ޤϲ򻶤ơƼ̱ޤ򻶤ơޤʤ󤫤ʤǴĥäƤߤ
Ǥ礦

ޤ󸽼ŪǤ礦

ˤƤĤ

̱ޤ褯äƤȤǤ夹ˡ

ֳ1餻ƤߤƲǥäޤؤФΤǤ


˺ˤʤޤ

ǡ̱ϽʬƤΤǤ㡼ä͡ȡ

ä顢ϤɤФʤơʤƤ

θǤäƲ


СʤȸäƤ衢Ȼפå򤪴ꤤפޤ

͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

Сʥ󥭵ĹϡԾѰβˡƤεԲ񸫤˱뤳ȤˤʤäƤ롢Ȥ

äƤΤǤ礦


Next, we're going to try to figure out where the economy is going. Here is some of what we know. The dollar
is down, but the stock market is up. Profits are up. Wages are not. Food and gasoline prices are up, but the
 Federal Reserve says it is not worried about inflation. David Wessel, economics editor of The Wall Street
Journal has been tracking all this.

ּϡкѤɤʤäƤ뤫뤳Ȥˤޤ礦褺ʬäƤ뤳ȤȤСťɥϲꡢϾ
ꡢȼפϾ夬ꡢ¶Ͼ夬äƤʤȡȥβʤϾ夬ꡢϢϥե
ۤϤƤʤȸäƤ롣륹ȥ꡼ȥ㡼ʥΥǡӥåɡå뤬ΤȤĴ
Ƥޤ

INSKEEP: So has is it that some parts of the economy are improving, while others are not?

ַʵ褯ʤäƤ̤⤢СǤϤʤ̤⤢褦ǤΤʤΤǤ礦

Mr. WESSEL: Well, you're right. It's a very uneven recovery. So manufacturing is doing well, increasing
exports, increasing profits, increasing productivity without doing a whole lot of hiring. The stock market
reflects that. People who make their money off of the stock market - the big banks, the trading - they're doing
 well.

֤Ǥ͡Ѷ衹ʲˤʤäƤޤ¤ȤϤ褯ơ͢ФϿӡȼפ⿭ӡ
夬äƤޤѤϤȤϤʤԾˤϤ줬ȿǤƤޤԾǤ
͡Ĥޤ礭ʶԤʤɤϡʵǤ͡

And we get a glimpse of how the overall economy did in the first quarter on Friday when the government
releases its first estimate of first quarter growth. Economists are betting it'll be bad. But they say these good
 things are beginning to work their way through the whole economy. And by the second, third quarter of this
year, things will be getting better unless something else goes wrong.

ֺζ1ȾGDPοͤФޤܤ켡®ͤȯɽΤǤΥߥȤ
ϡɤϽФʤȤߤƤޤɤ˷кΤ˿ƩƤǤȸ
äƤޤ2Ⱦ3ȾޤǤˤϡѤʤȤʤ¤ꡢäȤ褯ʤǤ礦


INSKEEP: Although when you say manufacturers are doing more business, exporting more, making more
profits but not doing a lot of hiring, right there would suggest why it's been an uneven recovery.

¤Ȥ򿭤Ф͢Фäפ⿭ӤƤϤ뤬ѤϤۤɤǤʤȤȤǡ衹
ȤȤǤ礦

Mr. WESSEL: That's right. That's right. But they are now beginning to hire, and the unemployment rate is
coming down. It's just coming down so painfully slowly that there's widespread anxiety about that. And not
much increase in wages. And that is contributing to a lack of enthusiasm among consumers, which is
keeping the economy from growing faster.

֤ΤȤǤϫƯԤۤưлϤƤޤ麣ΨФƤΤǤ
Υڡˡۤɤäǡ԰¤⤢ΤǤ¶⤢ޤ夬äƤޤ󡣤ȤȤǡ
Ԥΰߤˤ϶礱顢ĹΥԡɤ®ޤʤȤȤǤ͡


INSKEEP: Now, longtime listeners to this program or readers of your column will know that you closely track
 the Federal Reserve. They're meeting tomorrow and Wednesday. And this raises a question, I guess. Is the
 Fed going to do anything to address unemployment or do anything to address rising prices?

֤ȤʤʹƲäƤ䡢ΥɼԤϡϢưտå뤳
ȤΤ뤳ȤˤʤȤ⤤ޤϢȿ˰Ѱ򳫤ޤǼ䤬⤫֤ΤǤ
šϢϡ˼Ȥिᡢϥեޤ뤿˲̤ʤȤĤǤ礦

Mr. WESSEL: Actually not. They're kind of in a wait-and-see mode now. They're signaling they're going to
keep interest rates near zero for several more months, at least. They think that they've done enough to get
the economy going. And it's not such a good party that they need to take away the punch bowl, as the cliche
goes there.

֤ϤʤȻפޤϡŴѥ⡼ɤäƤޤ줫֡Ϥ⤦ϡ
˶ᤤݻȼƤޤŤ򤹤Сѥܥ뤳Ȥɬפʤۤɤ
⤫줿ѡƥˤϤʤäƤʤȤȤǤ

But actually, the big news this week isn't what they're going to do, but how they're going to explain it. Ben
Bernanke, the Fed chairman, for the first time ever is going to have a press conference after the meeting to
 explain to people why he didn't do what he didn't do.

֤礭ʥ˥塼ϡ餬ꤹΤȤȤǤϤϤơɤä
ȤˡˤĤƤʤΤǤĹΥСʥ󥭻ϡơ˵Բ񸫤򤹤뤳ȤˤʤäƤ
ǤʤäȤˤĤơΤʤäΤ͡櫓Ǥ

INSKEEP: Why is that a big deal?

֤줬ʤȤʤΤǤ

Mr. WESSEL: Well, it's a big deal because Fed chairmen generally haven't done them. They usually take
questions in public only at congressional hearings, which usually means they don't end up talking very much
about the substance of monetary policy. Mr. Bernanke has advocated for a long time doing this stuff in
public. He believes in what he calls transparency.

֤ϤǤ͡ϢεĹ̡ʤȤäƤʤäʤΤǤ̤ϡIJθİǤ
䤷ˤϼޤ󡣤ȡϡͻȤˤĤ;ʤȤȤʤΤǤС
󥭻ϡޤǤäȸǤ٤ȤͤǤƩ뤳ȤǤȿ
ΤǤ

But I think there are two other things going on. One is the Fed knows that people don't trust them. It's the
residue of the financial crisis. And he's looking to use this as an opportunity to build confidence in the Fed.

֤2ġͳȻפޤĤϡϢϡ͡򿮤ʤΤäƤ롢ȡͻ
θɤǤСʥ󥭻ϡˤäϢؤο괶ᤷȹͤƤ褦Ǥ

And secondly, there's a big committee at the Fed, and they tend to all talk at the same time and confuse
 people. By being the first one out to talk to people after the Fed holds its policy meeting, he will set the tone
 and he will send a clear message, he hopes, that won't be so polluted by every - all the disagreements
being aired in public.

ܤͳϡϢǽפʰѰ񤬳졢Ʊä򤹤С͡𤵤ͤʤȤ
ȤǤѰβ򳫤塢ǽबäȤˤäơå줷Τʥå
뤳ȤǤǤ礦ϡոΩ͡˹ޤʤȤ˾ǤΤǤ

INSKEEP: That said, is there a bit of a risk? A reporter asks the wrong question in the wrong way, Bernanke
 gives the wrong answer and somebody looks at the wrong word, and the stock market goes down 300
points.

֤ȤϤäƤ⡢ꥹϤʤΤǤݡְä򤷤ơСʥ󥭻᤬ְä
ơïְäƲᤷ300ݥȤ㲼Ȥ

Mr. WESSEL: You bet. And they are spending a lot of time at Fed worrying about just that and prepping him.
 He's watched the tapes of other central bankers doing press conferences so he can avoid that. But that's
the downside risk, and they know it.

ֳΤˤǤ͡ʬĹ֡ΤȤǿۤСʥ󥭻˽򤵤Ƥ褦Ǥ¾
ԤεԲ񸫤Ͽӥǥ򸫤ơʤȤΤʤ褦ˡȡ줬ꥹˤʤΤǤ礦

And it'll be a big challenge when Bernanke leaves and they get a new Fed chairman, who - in the past, you
never had to select someone who was good on TV in real time. In the future, that will be part of the criteria
they need.

֤줫顢Сʥ󥭻᤬Ĺ򼭤ᡢĹФȤ礭ˤʤǤ礦ˤϡTV
˽б餷Ƹɤ褦ʿͤɬפϤʤäǤŤ줫ϡθɬפ


INSKEEP: David, always a pleasure speaking with you.

Mr. WESSEL: You're welcome.

INSKEEP: That's David Wessel, economics editor of the Wall Street Journal this morning.


ƹ̱¿ϡFRBεĹïΤäƤΤʤƻפäå򤪴ꤤפޤ

͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

  ޤȤʤơʥ٥뤫ʤƻפäǤΤȤС
̳꤬λ軻Ѱǡ̺Ҥ⸻˳ò
κ⸻žѤ뤳ȤꤷȤܤˤǤ

ïʤȤ䤷ΤȤߤȡ̱ޤİȤ󡢸
ʤDz衣䤬˾ȤΤϡòκ⸻žѤꤷ
ˤǤϤʤʤȤ䤷ФƤǤ

򤷤ƤޤȤΤ⡢Ԥϡɥʾ⤢볰߽
ƤˤĤäɤȼ䤷ȤꤷǤ

Ǥ⡢褯ȤǤϤʤòΩѤǤʤΤʹȤ
ȤʤΤǤޤոʤ顢褫ƤǤ
¢ѲǽǤϤʤΤȡ
Τɤޤ󤬡ǤϡòǤϰغ»δط
ǡ15ߤɾ»ȯƤΤȤ顢ԲǽäʤΤȡ

ǡ䤬ΤϡòΩѤˤĤƤʤΤȤС
ǤϤʤܤ1ɥѤǤʤΤȤǥ
ˤĤƤʤΤǤ

ΤǤ͡ʤȤͤƤ͡

Ǥ⡢ޤ̤ι̱ȤͤΤǤСʬʤǤϤ
󡣤äơ߽ȤСޤΤȤǤ뤫顢ʤȤѤ
ʤDzѤΤʤƤ䤬ͯ⤷ʤǤ

ǡФơȤ֤äƤͤ櫓ǤʤȤ
ꥫΤʤȡ

Ǥ⡢ˤȤäƤϡꥫΤ뤫ɤȤȤϡܼŪʤȤ
ϤʤΤǤ󡢤ʤȤ򤹤СꥫΤϤΤȤǤ
䤬ꤷ褦ȤΤǤϤޤ󡣤ǤϤʤܼȤ
Ȥ򤹤뤳ȤǤʤȤȤʤΤǤ

Ρ߽ѤǤʤΤ

ˡǥȤȻפͤǤäƤΤǡҲ𤷤ޤ

ͤϡήϺᡣʤȸäƤޤ

ֳ߽ȤäӤΤʤѤΩƤƤ̣Ϥޤ
Ȥ٤Ǥ ߤȾʬȤ꤬Ǥ礦 ͤ⤻ޤ
ǤʤƤɤƤޤĤȯԤ˻Ǥ߽
Ф줹ɬפʤΤǤ

ο͡òλȤߤʬäƤΤ

Ǥ⡢äȶäΤϡߥ顼ޥ󤳤ȡ콨ᡣνͤο᤬Ǥ衢
1ɥ⤢볰߽ܱߤ˴⤷ơ絬Ϥʷк졦кк
ꤹ٤Ǥ

ͤ˸

ò̳ĶˤƤϤʤȤΤ

òǡ1ɥ붯λ񻺤ͭƤΤϡΤȤǤơ
ʧäƸⲽС⸻Ѥ뤳ȤǤΤ⤽ΤȤǤ

֤ä顢顩

1ɥ˸礦̳¸ߤƤΤǤĤޤꡢ¾ǡ1ɥ
߷Ƥμڶ⤬롢ȡŪ˸СûڷλĹ⤬¸
ƤΤǤ

Ĥޤꡢ˻񻺤ȤäȤ顢ĤΤϼڶ⡢μڶ⡢
ĤޤꡢûڷϡûȤä3ԤɬפΤ
ڷʤΤǤ

νԺ⸻ɤȤΤǤ礦

줬ʧʤСܤϥǥեȤ򵯤ʤƤϤʤޤפˡ
ˤþ롢ȡ


顢ٽѤ뤳ȤϤǤʤΤǤ



ϲΤʤȤΤȻפäå򤪴ꤤפޤ

͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

ȷкѳ

 

ΤϡȤ줿ΤǤǤ⡢ϡʤȤʹΤ

ʤäΤǤϤʤǤ礦⤷ʹȤȤС

ҲͤˤʤäͤƤʤɤ򤷤ʤפȡ٤Ȼ

ޤޤŪˤϡܿͤȤʤ褦ˤʤä顢

񤬿Ӥǥե줫æѤǤʤΤȡȤʤȤ

ȤΤ褦˸Ǥ

 

ΤˡäƤͤߤСҤ󤬤ȤлȤ

ͭ񤤡ȡεϤ褯ʬޤǤϡοξäƤ

ͤϤɤʤΤǤ礦ǡȤͤ¿ΤǤ礦

 

ʤȤϤޤ󡣾褦ʿͤ1ߤڤˤ

ǤȿФˡ̳䥵꡼ޥβϡȤλȤ̵

Ǥ뤳Ȥ¿褦˻פޤ

 

ǤϡΡʷΤ

 

ñʤȤǤͤϡͭ񤵤ȤˤߤƴƤ뤫

⤷ȤʤʤäݻƤޤšȡĤⷫ

ΤȤ򵤤ˤƤʤФʤޤ󡣤Ф̳Ȥ

꡼ޥˤĤƤϡޤǤѤ⤷ޤ󤬡Ȥϻ

Ȥ̤ȤơʤƤ⤪˶ϫ뤳ȤؤɤʤǤ礦

ޤ̳ΤʤˤϡòͤȤϸäƤ⡢Ǥ

 

ˤƤ⡢ԤˤäȤȤäߤȻפäƤĥܿ

ξͤȤʤǤ顢ޤ椬ξ񤬥ޥ

夬ʤȸäƤ⡢ïʸȤǤʤΤǤ

˹ͤƤߤ顢ҹ𲽤ʤǤǤ顣ν

ξع⡢ޤ3Ĥäع1ĤˤʤäƤޤޤ

Ĥޤꡢ̤οäƳع椬饬ˤʤäƤΤǡ3Ĥξ

ˤƤΤΨȡ飱ˤޤȤƤޤäȤ

ޤΤΰĤξعϡΥԡ̤äعȸ

Ƥޤ

 

äæƤޤޤפˡ夬˷礱롢ȡ

ǡкѳؼԤηäĤǤȤäƤ⡢

ɵȤȤ롢ȡ

 

θɵʤƸȡʤ󤫥ƥäݤǤ͡餳

θդФȡɤƤȤäƤߤʤǤ

 

ּҲͤˤʤäơߤळȤѽפʤȤ

ƤˤưȡΤԤԶˤʤäƤޤ

ơԶˤʤХꥹȥ餬ϤޤꡢޤʤʤƤ⡢Ͼ

餺ܡʥåȤ롣Ĥޤꡢ䤽Ȥ԰٤

ѤäƼҲΤȤ顢򸺤餷Ƥޤ̤򾷤Ȥ롣

줬θɵȤΤ

 

ޤͤä顢ϼΤǤ礦Ƴ㤤

ͤΤʤˤϡΤʤͤ¿⤷ޤ

 

ֹθɵǤʤȤɤΤäƤΤǤפʤ

ơ

 

Ǥޤкѥ˥塼ߡפʤɤȤ͡ߥ󥰤ͭޥ

ˤϡʤȸȤͽۤʤΤǤƥӤ

о줹кɾȤ⡢Ū¿Ϥää򤹤Ǥ硩

 

ͤҤȤ꤬ۤΤҤäƤ뤫鰭Ťʤơܤϡ

̱Ȥ褦˻ŸʤФʤʤơ

 

 

٤

 

ä顢桹ͤҤȤ꤬äȤäȾФΤ

 

Ǥ⡢ȯˤäƷʵ褯ʤäȤơ

θ塢ʵפ˷кȯŸ³뤳ȤǤ뤫ȸСϤϤʤ

ǤǤ

 

ޤ뤳ȤϡΤˡ̱ؤɤɤɤȤС

ʵϤ褯ʤǤ礦ޤǤϸ롣θ⤺äȷ

Ĺ³ʤƤȤϷ褷ݾڤǤʤΤǤ

 

Τ

 

ϴñᤤá̱¿Ϸʵ夲뤳Ȥ

ȤФꡢȤ̤ޤǡٲˤǤȤäιԤ򤷤ꡢͷ

ޤäꤹȤޤ礦ɤʤޤ

 

󡢷ʵϤ褯ʤޤǤ⡢äơͷӤޤäƤ

ȡïƯΤǤ礦ޤޤǶüʤȤʤƤ⡢

ïƯƤʤȡ桹褷ƤɬפʥΤݤ

ʤʤäƤޤǤ礦Ĥޤꡢ˥­褦ˤʤ롢

ȡޤǤΥǥեܤȤѤǤǤФ

ޤ󡢥Τ­̣ˤʤȤȤϡ٤ϥǥեǤϤ

եˤʤȤȤǤǡե줬󤯤ʤȡ

ܶԤϰ롢ȡϡʤƤ⡢Τ­

ȡΤϹ̱ȤǤǤ

 

ǡʤȡܤϸǤ

 

㤤ϻߤޤ礦㤪ȤƤΤϡɬפʤ

Ǥšʤơ

 

ǡ­ˤʤȡȤϤơ˱褦

Ȥ롢ȡ졢ѷ빽äΤ褦ʹǤš

Ϥ夲뤿򤷤褦ˤ⡢οΤ⤬ʤȡ

⤬ʤʤ顢Ԥڤ뤷ʤȡ̱Ȥ

̤Ƥ뤫顢Ԥˤ⤪;͵ʤʤäƤ롢ȡ

顢ԤܶԤ餪ڤ뤷ʤʤΤǤ

äơԤ䤫餪Ĵãơ˾Ȥͻ

뤳ȤǽˤʤäƤ⡢⤽­Τ˵ʪη

Ȥ夬äƤޤޤޤʤʤ֤ˤʤǤ

 

Ĥޤꡢɤɤ󤪶ȤäƤûŪ˷ʵɤʤ

ϳΤʤΤǤĹŪˤϷкѤĹ˻ߤ򤫤Ƥޤ

¤ǤΤǤ

 

ŤۤɤۤɤΤȤ˾ޤȤȤʤΤǤ

 

褷ơȤǤϤʤΤǤǤ⡢ΤȤʬǧ

Ƥͤɤ뤫κҳαƶ­ξ

֤Ƥ⡢ȯ뤳ȤɬפȡФ

ƤʤΤǤ

 

󡢾礤˷빽̱ΤȰ㤤;

ñ˼ڤ뤳ȤΤǤˤʤä餳Ϲ

Ǥ

 

ưŤʤƥ͡ߥ󥰤ǡ򸫤ʤƤ⤪ڤ褦

ʥƥޤǺäƤޤäƼҲǤǡ

äơǤϡäƤơ¾Ǥϡʧ᤮

顢֤Ƥ餤ʤŤʤơ

 

ˤƤ⡢ҲĬڤʤ

ȤˤʤäƤ⡢ĿͤȤƤϡ褯褯ͤǤʤȼڶϤ

ʤ褦ˤǤ

 

 

 

λ

 

ܤϡ᤮򤹤뤳ȤΤʤΤ

 

ޤʤȤ򥢥ꥫ餵󤶤ʹƤǤ¾

ΤȤȤ䤫ʡ

 

ǤϡΡʤȤ򥢥ꥫΤ

 

ϡꥫǰ׼٤ֻǡܤȿФ˹ξ֤Ĺ

³Ƥ뤫ǤäȤ⡢ǶǤϡ

˰ܤäƤƤϤǤ

 

ꥫθΤϡפˡ⤦ꥫʤä

졢ȡꥫǰֻʤ褦ˡ⤦ꥫ

ʤäƤȸʤΤǤ

 

ǡΤ餺Τ餺ܿͤ¿ǾƤޤäơȡ

ۤɤΡֹθɵפȤʹդ¸ߤ⤢Ǥ

 

֤äѡ夲ʤȤ͡פȡ

 

ǡϡκҳαƶͤǤ⤷ܿͤ¿

Ȥ褦ʹ̱Ǥä顢ɤʤäƤ

ȡ

 

餯᤬ʾ˵äΤǤϤʤȻפΤǤĤޤꡢ

륷åΥȥåȥڡѡʤʤäȤΤ褦

 

ϤääơζΥѡǤ⡢Ȥɤ˲ä

ʤêиƤǤʸʤʤɺޤǰ٤⸫Ȥ

ޤ󡣤ޤߥͥ륦­ˤʤΤʬ

ʤǤ⤢ޤ󤬡ʳξʤǤ⡢߸ڤˤʤäƤ

¿иƤǤǤޤ桹ˤϤ

ɤαƶͿƤǤϤʤΤǤ

 

줬Ȥ̱Ǥä顩ơ꼡

㤦Ȥ򲿤Ȥפʤä顩

 

⤦ѥ˥å˶ᤤ֤ǵƤΤǤϤʤȻפ

ΤǤ

 

顢οƤʤäȤƤȸ

Ǥ­ˤƤ⡢ط̱γ󤬡Ϥ󤷤

Ȥ뤫顢Ť򵯤Ȥ⾯ʤƺѤǤ

ΤǤ

 

⡢⡢ۤɤۤɤˡ줬кѳؤζǤϤʤǤ礦




ʾ


ۿͭޥȴ褷ΤǤ


󡢹ä衢Ȥå򤪴ꤤޤ
äꤪ٤ߤ

͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

ۤͻѰ˽ʤΤ褦˽Ҥ٤Ȥ
֤Ǥ᤯ǥե줫æѤкѤŪĹȤסֶͻԾ
νʻζĹפζٱʤɤ̤ƥǥե줫æѤϤ
Ƥ롣줫ϤƤ


̺ҸƩȤꥹιޤб뤿ˡ˻򶡵뤹뤳Ȥ
ĤƤϡ¸ޤ󡣤ο̺ҤФơ椬кѤξ礭
ѤꤷƤΤǤϤʤΤǤ礦

⤷ۤΰ̣֥ǥեפեɤμĥǥե졢¨ʪβȤ
ȤǤʤСۤθäƤ뤳ȤϡФԥȳǤϤʤΤǤ礦

ȤΤ⡢ǤϿ­ȯƤǤ顢Τ褦ʥ;
Ϥʤ­ۤ뤫Ǥ˺Ǥ⡢ѡêˤϡڡ
ΩޤĤޤꡢΤβʤ˾夬פ֤ˤʤäƤƤ롢ȡʤΤˡޤ
եæѤǽײʤƸΤǤ礦

ޤǤۤθ֥ǥեפϡΤ褦ʶΥǥե̣ΤǤϤʤ
̣ǤΥǥե̣ΤǤĤޤꡢñʪȤǤϤʤкѤ
ĹΨ㤹֤ؤƤǤñ˸СǥեæѤʤƸäƤƤ⡢
ۤϡԷʵæФɬפȸäƤʤΤǤ

ǤϡΡ虜虜֥ǥե줫æѡפʤɤȤդȤΤ

졢ϡŷкѤΤȤʬäƤʤȤФƤͤäƤȤȤǤ礦
ޤäƤ⤷褦ʤ顢ȤδΩƤ뤳Ȥɬפȡ

кѤξ礭ѤĤĤΤǤơкѤܤžС
ʤɤǥեηǰסޤĤĤΤǤ

ϤǤä񡣤ˤ夲ԤäƤ⡢夲ˤä
ѤäƳλܤǤǤ顣Ĥޤꡢι⤤ܻؤơˡ
ܤ򤯤ȴ⤬ή롢ȡǡʤɤ̱Υ졼Ȥ
˾夬뤳ȤΤʤ褦ˤȡز»ܤ롣ʤС̤λ⤬Фޤ
롣ơ줬ե֤򤫤롣ơե줬󤯤ʤΤǡޤ夲
ԤšƤޤ⤬ήƤ롢ȡ

ǤϤޤ󡣴кѤĹ³Ƥ뤫ȤäơΤ褦ʵ޷
¾夲ԤСʪ夬äǤϤʤǤ礦

ˡ켡ʤβʤͤ夲ƤߤޤǤϡ夬äƤ뤳Ȥͳ
ŵ⤬夬餷ȸƤޤʤʤǤ顢椬⡢ʪФ
븫򾯤ФѤɬפΤǤϤʤǤ礦

ǤǥեæѤʤƸäƤ͡ϡĬή˾٤ƤΤ
ϤʤǤ礦

ʤΤϡ줭űǤꡢ­βäǤꡢ­βȻפޤ

ϡե򵯤٤ʤɤȤͤϲ٤Ȼפޤ
ǥե줬äƤ⡢ˤäƾ񤬻ɷ㤵졢ʵ褯ʤʤƤȤϤʤǤ



ˤƤ⡢ۤȸȤΰ̣ʬʤȻפå򤪴ꤤ
פޤ

͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

3ǰפȯɽˤʤޤ3ǰ׹ϡʤ8⸺Ȥ

ɤפޤäѤ꺣Ͽ̤ȤȤ줫ŤαƶϡʤΤ
ΤʡȻפޤ

3ǰ׼٤ǤΤˤСǯƱ٤ǰ׹ۤ78.9θ
ʤäȡ

䡢Υ˥塼ʹơȻפäΤǤνִ֤ʤȻפäΤ
ɤƤǤ礦

ǰ׹ۤ8ΤǤǤϡ͢гۤϤɤۤȤΤǤ
ǰ׼٤ȤΤϡ͢Ф͢Τǡǰ׼٤Ȥ
С͢Фäꡢ͢ꤹ뤫鵯Ǥ

Ρ͢ФϡɤۤɸäƤΤǤ礦

¤ϡ3͢гۤ58660ߤǡǯƱ٤Сä2.2󤷤
ƤʤΤȤ

ȤȤϡϿ̤Ȥʤɤﳲϡǰ̤ˤϤۤɱƶͿƤʤȤ
ȤʤΤǤ礦Ǥ⡢äƤȤˤСܤʤĴã
ˡǤ˻پ㤬ФƤʤɡŤȡ

졢¿ʬ4ʹߤ礭ʱƶФΤǤ礦͡Ĥޤꡢ͢Фδ֤ˤϡ
櫓Ǥ顣㤨С3͢Ф줿Τ¿ϡ̺ҤƤ
Τ¿äȡ顢3͢ФߤʤΤαޤäȤƤ⡢4
ʹߤΤȤʬʤΤǤ

ߤˡ͢Ф礭ܤȤƤϡư֡ǯ27.8󸺡ˡȾƳŻ
ʡƱ6.9󸺡ˡŻʬʡƱ15.8󸺡ˡư֤ʬʡƱ4.9󸺡ˡ
Ʊ10.0󸺡ˤ󤲤Ƥޤ

ˤƤ⡢Ǥϡǰ׹礭Τ

ϡ͢ȡ3͢ϡ56995ߤǡǯƱ٤
11.9󿭤ӤȡǡӤͳϤȤСŴФʤɡ񸻲
ʤοӤƶƤ롢ȡ

ɤפޤճ͢οΨǤ硩

Ǥ⡢ǰ׼٤οϡΤʤΤǤ

򼨤ޤ礦

ǯ1ǯ֤͢Ф10ߡ͢9.9ߤäȤޤ礦ǰ׹
1鲯ˤʤΤǤǯ͢Ф10󿭤Ӥ11ߤˤʤäΤˡ͢ϿӤ
9.9ߤΤޤޤȤ顢ǰ׹11鲯ߤιȤʤꡢۤοӤϡ
1000οӤˤʤΤǤ

ϡǯ1ǯ֤͢Ф10ߡ͢9ߤäΤǯˡ͢Ф9
91鲯ߤˤʤꡢΰǡ͢Ѥ餺9ΤޤޤǤäˤϡ
׹ۤϡ1ߤ1鲯ߤ˸ꡢθΨ90ˤʤΤǤ

ȤȤǡǰ׼١ĤޤֻۤۤưΨ˵᤮ȥߥ꡼ǥ
󥰤ˤʤ뤳Ȥ˺ʤDz졢Ҥη軻ˤĤƤƱ褦ʤȤ
ǤĤޤꡢۤѡȿӤȤäȤ˵᤮ƤϤʤ
ȡ

Ǥϡդ٤Фꡢгۤܤ٤Ǥ礦

ˤƤ⡢4ʹߤǰưˤդɬפǤ͡

ҳäͤϡкѤäɤǤϤʤΤʡȻפå򤪴ꤤפ
褺Ϥ줭űǤ͡
↓↓↓
͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

 䡢ƥӤǡ֤դäפȸäƤΤʹơȻפޤ
פǤ礦դä

ǡ褯ʹȡġפʤΤȤĤޤꡢ̺ҹĤ̾ѤΡ

䤬ֿ̺ҡפʤơ͡ߥ󥰤ǤޤäԤ餴ǤȸäǤʤǤ
礦̾ؤƤޤäƤǤ
ȤƱ

̺Ҥκ⸻Ȥơġפȯԡ

ιĤȤ϶̤ƴ

ӤŪ˸ꡪ

ԤޤǤλήƩ


Ǥ⡢ԤޤǤλήƩ롢ȸäƤǤ͡ŽԤκ⸻ɤ
ƤΤȤȤäƤʤΤǤ͡

פˡĹۤȤΤϡֺѤƤϤʤɡޤڶ
Ƥޤ󤫡ȸäƤߤʤΤʤΤǤ

֤Τޤ򤪴ꤤΤǤš

ֻȤƻϡ

ּ¤ϡϿ̤ȤDzȤ줿ΤǡȤؤȤš

֤ϤǤ͡

ߤĺޤ

ָƤϤĺޤˤϡޤֺѤĺƤʤ󤬤ޤ͡

֤Ȥ̤Ǥͤĺޤ󤫡

֤Ϥš

ֺ֤Ѻ⸻ƤƤȤǤ

ôݤϤޤ

ôݤϤޤ󤬡Υ˴ؤƤϡμ¤ˡֺѤȻפ
Τǡš

ˡΤޤޡĤǤĤȤƤ⡢ֺѺ⸻ΤˤǤʤȡ
ˤʤǽ餢ޤĤޤꡢǤбΤǤСζŪ
ƤΤˤɬפȤȤǤ

¤б֤ߤƤȡڶֺѺ⸻ˤĤƤϡڤꤿǤ
ȹͤޤȸƤ褦ʤΤʤΤǤ

ֺѤΤˡǤ33ǯ֤ۤɰ夲ȤƤʹƤޤ⤽
μڶֺѤϡɤΡȸ줽ʵޤ

֤ǤϡΥֺѤǡˤʤΤǤ礦

֤äϡ⤦Ԥäĺޤ


μڶȺμڶϤäȶ̤μڶˤĤƤϡɬ᤯֤
Ƥ⡢μڶֺѤܽ褬ΩäƤʤȡʤʤϤŤ
Ǥ⤢ΤǤ

ˤƤ⡢⤽ˡΩϡޤʤΤǤ礦


äƤΤȻפäå򤪴ꤤפޤ
↓↓↓
͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

ʤǤ̺ҹĤäơɤפޤ

ˡȤäƶ򤫤Ǥ͡ǡʹФդΤ

ϡ⸻ݤ뤿˹Ĥȯ򤹤٤ǤϤʤȸΤǤϤʤ
ΤǤΡ虜虜ֿ̺ҹġפʤɤȤ̤ʤΤɬפΤȻפ
Ǥˡ⤽ޤǯ٤ˡƤΩƤʤΤˡ

֤ϡϿ̤ȤѤﳲȤΤʻ⤬ɬפ
ʤ뤫Ǥ硩

ȤƤ⡢̾ιĤȯԤǤϤʤΤȤȤǤ

֤褯ʬʤɡޤǤη߹ĤֻĤȰ㤤̤δǴ̤
ӤˤѤơǯǤ򤷤ơʤ᤯μڶֺѤ褦ˤ
Ȥš

ʤ᤯Ȥϡ

̤ιĤϡ60ǯǽԤΤ§ǤȤ᤯š

Ǥϡʹޤ礦̾ιĤ60ǯǽԤȤȤϡڶ60ǯ
ֺѤȤȤǡΤˤϼڶλĹ⤬ǯäƤʤФǤ
¤ϡڶĹϸɤɤɤƤǤ


ʤΤˡο̺ҹĤΡ60ǯֺѤǤȸΤǤ礦ˡ
줬¸ǤȤƤ⡢ΤȤˤϡ̺ҹĤ˸礦ʬ̾ιĤλĹ⤬
ƤäǤϤʤΤǤ礦

ĹĤޤꡢ10ǯʪĤή1.26٤Τ褦Ǥ
Ĺοܤ뤳ȤϡޡåȤˤϡޤĤξòǽϤȸȤ
ΤǤ⡢̺ҹĤʤȯԤʤƤ⤤ΤǤ

ǡ⤷塢Ĥξò񤷤ʤ뤳ȤǰƤȤСΤȤˤϡ
СĿ͸Ĥξ⤦̥ŪʤΤˤȤšפ򤹤
äʤΤǤ⸻ݤ뤿ȯԤĤ᤯ԤȤ
ǤСǤ⡢ñǤ򤹤ФäǤ

ο̺ҹĤΥǥϡ˽Ԥ뤳ȤܻؤȳʹɤȤ
Ƥ褦ǤšʤȤñ˼¸ǤΤǤСϫϤʤǤ

̺Ҹˡ̺ҼȤΤȯԤޤ줬塹ơ¶
ƹԤäΤȤΤʤΤǤ礦

ֿ̺ҡפʤơ͡ߥ󥰤Ǥ⡢ޤäԤ餴Ǥ

 

ΡȤϳʹФĤΤȻפäå򤪴ꤤפޤ
↓↓↓
͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

γ߽⤬33ɥˤޤΤˤϡ3447ɥˤ
äȤơǯƱ٤С24.4äƤΤȡ

䡼ΤǤ͡椬γ߽⤬11160ɥǤ顢⤦3ܶᤤ
ˤʤäƤǤ

褯ܤηкѵϤӤݡGDP٤ȤѤǤš
GDPϡδ֡ܤȴޤ͡Ǥ⡢ο͸ܤ10ܤ⤤
1GDPˤФޤܤ10ܤ⤢Τȼ˸ʹ
Ǥ

ʾϤʤɤ̣ȡšܤब10ܤȤΤϾ
뵤ޤơ߽٤ȡܤ3ܶ᤯ͭ
Ǥ顢1GDPȤºݤϡܤ3ܤۤɤ
٥ȹͤ⤷ޤ

ǡ񤬺ǯΨ10᤯οΨĹ³ܤĹΨƱ
ǤäȤС10ǯ⤹СϿΰ̣ˤʤäƤ뤫⤷ޤ

ޤˤƤ⡢Ĥˤʤ뤳Ȥޤ

γ߽ǯƱ24⿭ӤȸޤȾǯ٤ߤ
⡢ɤɤƤͻҤǤšѤȻפޤ󤫡

ΤȸСšϡ1-3ǰ׼٤7ǯֻ֤
ˤʤäȯɽޤǰ׼٤ֻǤȤȤϡǰפη̡ߤ뤳
ȤϴŪ˹ͤˤǤǤ⡢ʤ˳߽Ƥ롢ȡ

βʤΤ

󡢳߽⤬Τϡ񤬰زԤη̡ɥͭ⤬
ƤǤšǤϡΥɥϤɤƤΤ

ǰ׼٤ֻǤ뤳ȤͤȡʳװdzߤήƤΤ
Ȥ⡢ǰ׼٤ֻǤȤΤ줿ǤȤȤ

ޤɤʤȤˤ衢ο̱򸫱ۤơ餤ʷdzߤ
ήƤ뤳ȤȤȤǤäơȤʤɤˤС
äƿ̱DZѤ뤳Ȥˤäơ礭̱徺Ȥˤϡ٤
뤳ȤǤ뤫Ǥ

ϡ񤬥ե򤹤뤿夲äƤ뤿ˡΤλ
⤬˽ޤäƤȤȤǤ礦äơ⤬ή뤫
顢ϤʤزԤȱסԾ˻⤬Ф졢ƥե
®롢ȡơե줬®뤫顢夲Ԥȡšޤ⤬ήƤȡ
ȡĤޤ³ΤǤ礦


ˤƤ⡢Ի׵ĤʸݤȻפäå򤪴ꤤפޤ
↓↓↓
͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

ΥڡΥȥåץ