кѥ˥塼

޸Ρкѥ˥塼̤ưͻ֥Ǥϵ岹Ȳ˻ߤΤúи󾧤ޤиӽиȤϰ㤤ޤߤʴ㤤ΤǤ

2013ǯ01

2012ǯ4ȾƹηкĹΨȯɽˤʤäΤǤ

0.1Υޥʥʤ͡

ʤΤǤȥ꡼ޥ󥷥åΥꥻå衢ƥޥʥĹˤʤäΤȡâޥʥ0.1Ǥ

֤äѤʵʤäƤΤʡš

Ǥ⡢ǥߤСۤѤ򤷤Ƥ褦ǤʤΤǤ

֤ɤѤɬפʤΡ

ʤΤǤϡĤޤꡢ0.1Υޥʥɤ᤹٤ѤɬפʤΤѤɬפʤȤ顢ͳϲʤΤ

ȯɽƤΥݥȤ򤪼ޤΤǡѤɬפʤΤ褺ʬǹͤƤߤƲ

2012ǯ4ȾGDPΥݥȡ

2012ǯ4Qμ¼кĹΨϡǯΨ0.1󸺡3ǯȾ֤Υޥʥ

2012ǯ3Qμ¼кĹΨϡ3.1

ޥʥˤʤäϡ߸ưޥʥˤʤäȤȡܻٽФȤ礭͢Фθ⤢롣߸ư1.27ܻٽФ1.33󡢤ơ͢Ф0.25󡢤줾GDP򲡤Ƥ롣

Ŀ;2.2ȡ3Q1.6äƤ롣

̱8.4ֽ̱15.3


ǡǤ礦ʤȤʤʬäƤޤ

ʤΤǤĿ;񤬾ơ佻񤬳ȯˤʤäƤΤѤɤʾ뤤ȤϤʤ褦ʾˤʤäƤΤǤ

ܻۤٽФθȡ߸ưαƶ礭äȡ

ǤϡܻٽФΤγȴطƤΤ

ϡΤȤȡ

Ǥϡ߸ưϲGDP򲡤Τ

餯̱֤δȷбļԤγˤäƩޤʤ¤߸ˤ򸺤餷Ƥ̵ʤΤǤϤʤȹư̤ǤϤʤȸƤΤǤ

ĤޤꡢбļԤϡγδطǺ߸ˤ˴ؤƿŤʹưäȡΰǡƤ뤷ƤΤǤˡĿ;⿭ӤƤΤǤ

ޤȤʹС0.1ΥޥʥĹοʤɡˤΤ⤷ޤ

ϸäƤ0.1ΥޥʥˤʤäȤȤϻ¤ǤꡢơθǤγϡñꤵ줿ξ֤ˤʤäƤǤ顢ޤޤΤǤ

ȤС2013ǯQĹΨƤӥޥʥˤʤʤȤ¤ʤ

ˡǤŶΩˤϸʤǤ顣

ڴѻ뤷ƤƤΤȤ⿼˹ͤ٤ʤΤ줬ʤΤǤ



ƹϡȤкѤ­ĥäƤȻפäå򤪴ꤤפޤ

͵blog󥭥󥰤
Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

轵Υ졼ȤǤХɥDZߤ91.04ߡơڹΥ1075.33դƤΤǤŤɤפޤ

ڹкѤǤ롩

ͥåȤˤϡפͤ¿ߤʤΤǤɤƤޤǴڹӷΤǤ礦

Τˡ򤷤ƲȻפ

ϤΤȤꡪ

顢ηˤĤƤϡݻˡȽʤ٤ʤΤˡŤɤˤʤä٤𲽤ƤǤϤʤǤɤȡּ᤹פȤϤɤʤäΤǤ礦

âηǴڹ񤬲ȤäƤ⡢ڹܤδطڤäƤڤʤڹ񤬷ȸäƤ⡢桹ܿͤηˤϡڹͤη줬ͤη빽äƤǤ

ˡˤ̤СŪѤä͡ΦܤơܤˤѤȤϻ¤ʤΤǤ顣

ץ饹ɻҤäơϥäƿ٤Ǥ硩ĤƻܤΥҡäΤǤƻäơΤʤΤǤ


ˤƤ⡢ҤȤʱ߰¤ˤʤäƤꡢ֤³ΤǤܤ͢Ф褷ʤзкĹΨҤäȤܤλǤɤ23٤ã뤫⤷ޤ

äƤޤٷкѤĹǤܤμڶμ¼ŪôڤʤʤƤȤϤޤ

кĹˤȤʤǼ뤳ȤϽʬԤǤΤΡŤȤäơͽ׿񤤤ʬǼŤȤʤɤǤʤΤǤΤȤְʤDz

âסܤμڶ⤬ȤǷʵ褯ʤΤǤС֤Υࡼɤ뤯ʤǤ礦äơʤаκᄀǡƤλıⰵǽΤǤ

֤ޤŤȤäơܤμڶФꡣ

ʾۤƤȡץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤ιܻؤȸäƤΤ¸ΤǤ礦λ˱ˤƤϤäȸäƤΤǤ

Ǥϡץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤ˤ뤿ˤϲɬפ餯塢2014ǯ٤ˤϡưǤߤʤǽǤ

Ǥ⡢ɤơ

פäͤϡ
ץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤ΰ̣ʬˤʤäʤΤǤ͡

ץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤Ȥϲ

ץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤ȤϡŪ٤ΤȤǤ

;ʬʤǤϡʬפޤ礦

ץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹡ϴŪ٤ȤϡμΤĤȯԤˤΤ顢λٽФΤĤθʧΤ򺹤٤ΤǤ

ĤޤꡢǼʤɤŪʺ⸻ʹٽФ٤ˤŤȤǤ뤫ɤȸäƤΤǤäơǼʤɤȤǤץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤ϹˤʤꡢŤȤǤʤֻˤʤΤǤ

ơ⤷ץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤ˤʤС;äǤޤǤμڶ֤ȤǤ뤫⤷ʤΤҤäȤڶĹ򸺤餹ȤǤ뤫

ץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤Ǥ⡢ܤ¾ڶʧѤŤɬפΤǡ;äʧԤäǤˤ⤬;ʤȡڶĹ򸺤餹ȤϤǤʤΤǤ

ˤƤ⡢
ץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤ƤСڶʧ˼ڶ򤹤뤳ȤäƤ⡢Ť˼ڶ򤹤뤳ȤϤʤΤǡ©ʬڶ˾褻ʳ˼ڶλĹ⤬뤳ʤΤǤ

äץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤ȤϸäƤ⡢ˤäƼڶĹ⤬ˤʤ뤳ȤܻؤȤڶĹ򸺤餹ʤɤȤɸΩƤȤˤϤʤʤΤǤ

äƤߤСڶ륹ԡɤѴˤ䤫ʤΤˤȤΤץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤ˤȤȤΰ̣ʤΤǤ

Ǥϡζˤƹɸã뤿ˡܤϤɤΤ褦ʹưɬפΤ

2013ǯ٤ͽƤյķꤵޤ¸ΤǤ͡

926鲯ߡΤĤνԤʧ˽Ƥ222鲯ߡ

Ĥޤꡢˡ2013ǯˤץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤ȤʤСιĤȯԤ22٤ǧʤȤˤʤΤǤ

Ǥϡºݡ2013ǯ٤Ϥɤ줯餤ĤȯԤ褦ȤƤΤ

428ߤˤΤǤ

2013ǯ٤ϡץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤ˤʤɤ20ߤֻˤʤΤǤ

ޤľ˥ץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤ˤʤ̵Ǥ礦

ơ줬ľˤǤʤȤƤ⡢ϰΤǤϤʤ

ˤƤϡץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤뤳ȤɬפȸäƤǤ顢ʤƤⲿޤǤˤʤ뤳ȤܻؤȤ٤ΤȤϸäƤ⤤ΤǤϤʤǤ礦

ɸʤƤޤ󤫤顢ɤϲȼ٤ǤϤʤΤǤ礦

ˡץ饤ޥ꡼Х󥹤ȤΤǤСΤˤϿĤȯԳۤ22٤ޤɬפޤơΤ˿ĤȯԳۤ2013ǯ٤Ⱦʬ٤ˤ뤳ȤޤĤޤꡢ⤷Ǽ礬褽ۤ˾ʤȤС̲פͽϤ2013ǯ٤92ߤ70٤ޤǸ뤳ɬפʤΤǤ

ʤȤϸȤƼ¸ԲǽǤ礦

Ǥ⡢⤷뤳Ȥʤ顢Ǥ򤹤뤷ޤǤȤäƤ⤳ޤȿФ͡¿ǤŤ⡢20ߤǼ䤹ȤʤСɤôˤʤ뤳Ȥ

Ǥ⡢׻ϴñʤΤǤ

ܿͤͤο1ͤȤߤʤСͰ20ߤô¸ʤ20ߤˤϤʤʤΤǤ

ˡʵ褯ʤꡢɤɤ夬20ߤôۤɤǤʤʤǽʤˤ⤢餺ǤŤʤ뤿ˤϡͤε100߶᤯ɬפǤ礦

ץ饹⤷Ʒʵ褯ʤꡢƵ褦ɤäȤƤ⡢ʤж餯徺ƤȦǤ顢Ĥʧô쵤ǤɬפˤʤΤǤ


¿ʬ¿οͤϡ褽ˤʤ뤳Ȥʤ⡢ϡʤȤͤʤ褦ˤƤΤ⤷ޤ

ȳڴŪʿͤ¿Ȥ

եɤȽʤаƤ򼨤Ȥ褯ޤơ¤ƻԤĤΤȤޤ

ä׿񤤤κư򤹤뤳Ȥˤäƾ褬Ūʾˤʤ뤳Ȥưפͽۤ뤫ٹ𤷤ƤʤΤǤ

ˤƤ⡢Ƥ桹ϡ夫ܥ˸뤳ȤˤʤΤǤϤʤΤǤ礦



ԾطԤǡΤȤͤƤͤ϶˰ǤϡȻפå򤪴ꤤפޤ

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Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

߰¤ˤʤäƳŤ⤦ʾˤʤä1ʾ夬вᤷޤ

ƤȺ٤ϡȥ西2012ǯμư1κ¤å󤷤ΤȤ

߰¤2012ǯȾ鵯ƤʤȤ⤫߰¤2012ǯ11ʹߤνȹͤǤŤΰ̣ǤѤΩɡ

ǤʤС庣Τ褦ʱ߰¤³С2013ǯϡäȼư֤ޤ뤳ȤǤ礦

ơʤϤͽۤΤǤСϤޤ夬롢ȡ

ҤäȤť٥Υߥ˶λ礫⤷ޤ

ˤƤ⡢߰¤βääƤܤǤŰإ졼ȤȤΤϡλǷޤΤǤϤޤ󡣤ĤޤꡢȤδطǰإ졼ȤϷޤ롢ȡ

äơ߰¤ˤʤäȤȤϡ¾ǡɥ⤬Ƥ뤳Ȥˤʤꡢܤ֤ΤǤСꥫǤ礦

Ƥξ塢ǥȥȤμưֻȤδطԤϡ٥Υߥα߰ȽϤƤΤǤ

ϡΤΤ褦˥ɥĤȽ򤷤Ƥ롢ȡ

Ǥϡ椬Τ٤δڹϤɤʤäƤΤ

¿ϡ⤦դƤȻפΤǤ

ڹϡ᤯٥Υߥα߰ȽƤޤȤΤ⡢⤬⤿餵졢ڹ͢лȤǷꤽ顢ȡ

äϾæޤťͥåȤǥ٥Υߥٻͤȡڹʿͤϥ֤äƤ褦˸ޤŤǤ͡

ʤȥͥåȤˤϴڹʿͤ¿Ȥ

äޤβ椬ʶͻŸȡڹΥβͤ夬ΤǤ礦

ɤƴڹο͡ϡ٥Υߥβͤ夲ƤȹͤΤǤ礦

ޤ

ΤȸСڹΤܤΤ뤳Ȥ򿿻Τʹ񡣥ƥȤˤƤ⡢ܤο͵Ȥ򤽤Τޤޥ󥸤ʤ褦Ȥ¿äΤǤΤޤ󤱤ɡ

顢ܤ٥ΥߥˤäƱ߰¤¸˴ڹ񤬿ΤǤСľȻפΤˡ

Ȥ⤽ܤѶŪȤŪ˰ز򤷤ƥβͤ㤯ޤƤΤڹǤϤʤäΤޤ餳ƹϡڹФơΤ褦ʰزߤ褦ˤȴ򤷤ƤΤǤϤʤäΤ

ڹ⡢ڹǤΥ٥ΥߥСβͤȤϻפʤΤǤ礦

ɤ⤪

¿ʬڹϥβͤ㤯褦ˤȡɬˤʤäƽ¤ΤȤäƤȻפΤǤäơʤ͢лȤǷǤ顣

βͤϤʤʤʤ

ϡĶϤȤ롢եɤο͡˸

⤷ڹ񤫤饢ɥХ줿顢ɤʥɥХ򤹤Τȡ

餯ڹʶͻѤ顢󤬰¤ʤȥɥХ򤹤ȻפΤǤ⤷ڹ񤬷ǤʤС

ڹϤʤȽʬΤƤΤǤơ٤ȤϤäƤ롣

ɡδڹΥβͤ夬äƤ뤫ȸС桼ޤꡢꥹξ֤иŤη̤Ȥơߤ٤ˤޤꡢơ̲ߤʤɤ٤ˤޤǤ줾̲ߤβͤ夬äƤäʤΤǤ

ȤȤǡڹ񤬡βͤ夬äƤΤܤΤǡܤ餷ʤƻפΤ϶ڰ㤤ʤΤǤƱɥĤܤΤǡ 桼ˤʤäƤޤäȤΤ⤪ΤǤǤϤʤ桼ޤäƤ뤫鼫ȥ桼βͤȿФ˱ߤο ˤޤᤷƤʤΤǤ

ʾ


ڹ񤬡ܤΤˤΤϤ㤤Ȼפå򤪴ꤤפޤ

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Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

׻յĤ2013ǯ٤ηкѸ̤յλ򤵤ޤ

2013ǯ٤μ¼GDP2.5ˤʤ븫ߤȡ

ơǵ˼򤷤ȻפޤϡǮʰܥե

⤷Ǥäơͳηк̥Ϥ򴶤ȤΤǤμˤäߤΤǤ

ǤϡǤ

ϡ줫142013ǯ٤λȤʪξ徺ΨɤΤ褦ꤷƤΤ礦Ĥޤꡢ2013ǯ٤ʪ徺ΨϤΰ̤ˤʤͽۤƤǤ礦

Ǥ͡2˷ޤäƤǤϤʤȸΤ͡ΤȸСФơ2ʪɸͤѤФǤ͡

ˡ⤦ĤȻפޤ

⤷ۤФ졢οۤβ̵¤ζͻºǤФŤ2013ǯ٤η̤ߤƤߤȤ2013ǯξʪξ徺Ψ0.5٤ǤäꡢϡGDPǥե졼ξ徺Ψ0.2٤ǤäȤСϡ̤­뤳ȤǤǤ礦

Ǥ͡­ǤʤǤä˥ե쥿åȤ򶯤ٻƤͤä顣

ΤʤСʪξ徺Ψ0.5٤Ǥϡʪ徺ΨӤǤä1ˤϤʤǤ顣

ä顢ФơϤɤΤ褦б뤳ȤˤʤǤ礦

ɤ䤷Ĥ롩

褷ƤʤȤˤϤʤʤǤ礦

Τ

ȤΤ⡢2013ǯʪؿξ徺Ψ0.5ˤʤ餺ޤGDPǥե졼ϡꤵ㤤0.2󤷤徺ʤյλ򤷤ΤǤ

Ǥʤ˴Ť٤ǡʤȤǥǥե줫æѤǤΤǤ

ˤƤ⡢յλ򤵤줿2013ǯ٤ηкѸ̤ˤСGDPΡ̾µžפ16ǯ˲ä뤳ȤˤʤΤȤ

̾µžȤϡ̾GDPοΨ¼GDPοΨ򲼲븽ݤʤΤǤ

ǤϡžݤεΤȸСŤʤΤǤʪ徺ΨޥʥˤʤäƤȡ̾GDPοΨ¼GDPοΨ뤳ȤȤʤΤǤ

ơ꡼ޥ󤫤餹С¼GDPӤȸäƤ⡢̾ܤǥޥʥˤʤäƤȼä¶⤬ˤʤΤ̾GDP򲿤ȤߤȤˤʤΤǤ礦

ǤϡǤ⤦ļǤ

16ǯ֤̾µžפäȤȤδ֡äʪƤȤȤ̣ΤǤΤȤϤɤפˤʤǤ礦

Τˡǥե줬ä³ƤȤФ뤫⤷ޤˤʪ徺Ψץ饹žǯ⤢ΤǤϤʤǤ礦

2001ǯٰʹߤξʪؿưǯλؿˤߤƤ⡢2006ǯ١2007ǯ١2008ǯ٤3ǯ֤Ϣ³ʪ夬äƤΤǤ

Τ16ǯ֤Τ

ϡŤϡʪؿˤϰ㤤ʤΤǤ¼GDP򻻽ФʪؿȤΤϡGDPǥե졼ȤʪؿȤϰۤʤʪؿѤƤ뤫ʤΤǤ

Ǥޤ䤬ޤ

ʪؿοΨϡ2001ǯٰʹߥץ饹ͤ򼨤äΤˡGDPǥե졼οΨϤޤǥץ饹žȤʤäΤ

θΰĤϡʪؿGDPǥե졼ϡؿܤоݤۤʤΤǤ

ˡޤ˰إ졼Ȥ礭ư褦ʤȤˡۤʤäȿ򤹤뤫Ǥ⤢ΤǤ

㤨Сޤ˱߰¤ʤ褦ʤȤˤϡʪˤɤΤ褦ʱƶͿ뤫

߰¤ˤʤС͢븶βʤ徺ơ줬͡ʾʤȵȤͤޤԤʲʤˤޤžˤϤ٤δ֤Τ̤Ǥ㤨СβʤβʤľȿǤ礦ΰȤƻѤƤƤ⡢γ礬ʾʤǤСºݤ˲ʤ夬ޤǤˤλ֤

椬񤬳񤫤鸶ղŷݤβʤϡ߰¤ˤʤäʬ߷ƤβʤΤޤȿǤΤǤơ͢ʤ夬ȡGDPǥե졼㲼ȤߤˤʤäƤΤǡGDPǥե졼ϡ߰¤ˤäƺǽϤष㲼뤳Ȥ¿Ǥ礦

ǯGDPǥե졼ɤΤ褦˿ܤƤ뤫οͤȻפޤ

ǯGDPοܡ

̾GDP¼GDPGDPǥե졼
2001ǯ١-1.8󡡡 -0.4󡡡-1.4
2002ǯ١-0.7󡡡1.1󡡡-1.8
2003ǯ١ 0.8󡡡  2.3󡡡-1.5
2004ǯ١ 0.2󡡡1.5󡡡-1.3
2005ǯ١ 0.5󡡡1.9󡡡-1.3
2006ǯ١ 0.7󡡡1.8󡡡-1.0
2007ǯ١ 0.8󡡡1.8󡡡-1.0
2008ǯ    -4.6󡡡 -3.7󡡡-0.9
2009ǯ١-3.2󡡡 -2.0󡡡-1.2
2010ǯ١ 1.3󡡡3.4󡡡-2.0
2011ǯ١-1.4󡡡0.3󡡡-1.7

2012ǯ١ 0.3 1.0ˡ-0.7
2013ǯ١ 2.7 2.5  0.2

()̽񤭤ϡܤθ̤


ǶGDP(ǯˤοܡ

2011ǯ4Q -1.8󡡡 -0.2󡡡-1.6
2012ǯ1Q 2.3󡡡3.4󡡡-1.1
2012ǯ2Q 2.9󡡡3.9󡡡-1.0
2012ǯ3Q-0.3󡡡0.5󡡡-0.8


ǡǤ礦

ޤǤοܤߤƤȡGDPǥե졼2᤯ˤʤʤơñʤȤǤʤȤưפȻפޤ

äơGDPǥե졼οΨä0.2ǤϤäƤץ饹žǤ뤤ȤƼߤǽʤΤǤ

âǥե졼οΨץ饹žƤ⡢¼GDPӤʤа̣ޤ

ˤƤ⡢ܷкѤκιϡưʤΤǤϤʤǤ礦

ΤʤС桼ޤꡢơƹηкѤ뤵᤹ʤСݤǤ߰¤ʤफǡƱμפ뤳ȤͽۤΤǡ2Ĥΰ̣ܤ͢Ф¥ʤ뤳Ȥˤʤ뤫Ǥ

ȤƤϡ̾µž¸ʤƤ⡢¼GDP2ʾξ徺Ψ򼨤ФǾȹͤޤ



ϤȤ⤫ǤʵɤʤäߤȻפå򤪴ꤤפޤ

͵blog󥭥󥰤
Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

֥Ρ٥кѳؾ޼޼ԤΥ祻աƥåƥӥ綵24߹Ʒʵɷ㤷ܳŪʥǥեкǤĤȤտޤȽҤ١ʶͻ¤ưȤηкɾ󤸤Ƥޤ1/26Żǡ

̤ơƥåĶϡŪˤȯ򤷤ΤǤ礦

ͥåȤĴ٤Ƥʤʤʬޤ󡣤ϡΥܥĤǼΤ褦ȯ򤷤ƤΤǡब٥ΥߥѶ˺˰ɾͿΤǤΤǤ

ϡɤʤȤȯƤΤǤ礦

America likes to think of itself as a land of equality and opportunity, the so-called American dream is very deep to our sense of identity,

֥ꥫϼʬιʿȵιǤȹͤ롣Ĥޤꡢꥫɥ꡼ब桹ο˿Ƥ

The stats show otherwise, the U.S. has one of the worst opportunity rates of any of the advanced economies,

֤ץǡϡǤϤʤȤ򼨤Ƥ롣ƹϡʹΤʤǵ̤ǰ٤ƤΰĤȡ

They repeat the same kind of platitudes, we need to get growth, austerity wont be enough, but no country policies that will achieve growth,

θȤʤȤФĹɬפȤ롢۽̺ʬǤʤȡɤι⡢Ĺã褦ʤΤϤʤ


ȤȤǡϡƹäѶŪʺǤäƽФ뤳ȤɬפȸΤǤ

ĤޤꡢˡǹԤʤСѶŪʺưɾƤ٤

ǤϡϡΤǤ礦ĤޤꡢѶŪʺ˽ФСǤΤ⤷ǤʤСѶᤤͤǤȤ¬ΤǤबѶ˺ĥΤˤ̤ʰ̣ΤǤ

ΤȤˤĤΤꤿǤ

ä顢ब񤤤ʸϤɤǤߤ뤳ȤǤ

The Post-Crisis Crises  Joseph E. Stigliz2013/1/7

NEW YORK – In the shadow of the euro crisis and Americas fiscal cliff, it is easy to ignore the global economys long-term problems. But, while we focus on immediate concerns, they continue to fester, and we overlook them at our peril.

֥桼ȥꥫκγ˱Ƥ뤿ᡢ桹ϡкѤĹŪ򸫼Ǥ롣桹ܲηƻ˵Ƥ뤦ˤ⡢ĹŪϿﲽƤ롣桹ϴΤǤƨƤΤǤ

The most serious is global warming. While the global economys weak performance has led to a corresponding slowdown in the increase in carbon emissions, it amounts to only a short respite. And we are far behind the curve: Because we have been so slow to respond to climate change, achieving the targeted limit of a two-degree (centigrade) rise in global temperature, will require sharp reductions in emissions in the future.

ֺǤ⿼ʤΤϵ岹ȲǤ롣кѤĹΨߤäƤ뤿ˡúӽ̤äΥڡ⤽˱ߤäƤ뤬äεٷƤ˲᤮ʤ桹ɸϤ뤫٤Ƥ롣桹ưб٤Τǡϵεξ徺2٤αɸͤã뤿ˡ褵˸úǤӽк︺ɬפȤʤ

Some suggest that, given the economic slowdown, we should put global warming on the backburner. On the contrary, retrofitting the global economy for climate change would help to restore aggregate demand and growth.

ַкѤڤƤΤǡϵ岹Ȳê夲٤ȸԤ롣ɤкѤι¤򵤸ưб뤳ȤǤ褦˲ɤ뤳ȤפäˤĤʤꡢĹ᤹ȤʤǤ

At the same time, the pace of technological progress and globalization necessitates rapid structural changes in both developed and developing countries alike. Such changes can be traumatic, and markets often do not handle them well.

ƱˡѿȹݲΥԡɤ®ȡʹˤƤ⡢ơӾˤƤ®ʹ¤Ѳ뤬ѲѤ˾׷⤬礭Ծ줬꤯бǤʤȤ¿

Just as the Great Depression arose in part from the difficulties in moving from a rural, agrarian economy to an urban, manufacturing one, so todays problems arise partly from the need to move from manufacturing to services. New firms must be created, and modern
financial markets are better at speculation and exploitation than they are at providing funds for new enterprises, especially small and medium-size companies.

網ϡ¼ΰưĤޤȷкѤԻԤ¤濴ηкѤ˰ܹԤ뤳ȤǤäȤ⸶ǤƱ褦ˡϡ¤Ȥ饵ӥȤذܹԤɬ뤳Ȥ⸶Ǥ롣ȤʤФʤʤơŪʶͻԾϡȡä澮βҤ˻򶡵뤹뤳Ȱʾ굡褬ΤǤ

Moreover, making the transition requires investments in human capital that individuals often cannot afford. Among the services that people want are health and education, two sectors in which government naturally plays an important role (owing to inherent market imperfections in these sectors and concerns about equity).

֤ˡƹ¤ܹԤ뤿ˤϡĿͤȤƤϹԤȤΤǤʤ褦ʿŪܤؤɬפȤʤ롣͡ɬפȤ륵ӥȤˤϷ򹯤ȶ餬ꡢĤʬܤϽפ̤ƤʤʬǤϻԾ줬˵ǽ뤳Ȥʤޤʿݤ뤿ˤǤ

Before the 2008 crisis, there was much talk of global imbalances, and the need for the trade-surplus countries, like Germany and China, to increase their consumption. That issue has not gone away; indeed, Germanys failure to address its chronic external surplus is part and parcel of the euro crisis. Chinas surplus, as a percentage of GDP, has fallen, but the long-term implications have yet to play out.

2008ǯδϡкѤԶѹդꡢơɥĤʤǰ׼񤬾äɬˤĤơ褯äʤ줿ϤʤʤäƤʤɥĤŪǰ׹бǤʤäȤ桼ܼǤ롣GDPǤߤιƤƤΤΡĹŪˤϤޤ褵줿ǤϤʤ

Americas overall trade deficit will not disappear without an increase in domestic savings and a more fundamental change in global monetary arrangements. The former would exacerbate the countrys slowdown, and neither change is in the cards. As China increases itsconsumption, it will not necessarily buy more goods from the United States. In fact, it is more likely to increase consumption of non-traded goods – like health care and education –resulting in profound disturbances to the global supply chain, especially in countries that had been supplying the inputs to Chinas manufacturing exporters.

ƹǰֻϡƹιߤäơζͻ˴ؤƺŪѲʤвä뤳ȤϤʤǤԡƹáˤϡƹηʵذǤơɤѲⵯꤽˤʤ񤬾äƤ⡢ɬƹʤ㤦ǤϤʤ¡Τξ䤹⡢Ť䶵Τ褦ʥӥξ䤹Ȥˤʤꤽơη̡͢жȼԤФʤ򶡵뤷Ƥ񡹤ζ˺⤿餹Ǥ

Finally, there is a worldwide crisis in inequality. The problem is not only that the top income groups are getting a larger share of the economic pie, but also that those in the middle are not sharing in economic growth, while in many countries poverty is increasing. In the US, equality of opportunity has been exposed as a myth.

ֺǸˡŪ˳ʺδƤ롣ϡǾ̤Υ롼פкѤΥѥΤ礭ʥݤƤ뤳ȤǤϤʤή餬кĹβäƤʤȤǤ롣¿ιϺƤΤǤ롣ƹˤƵζϿäˤʤäƤ

While the Great Recession has exacerbated these trends, they were apparent long before its onset. Indeed, I (and others) have argued that growing inequality is one of the reasons for the economic slowdown, and is partly a consequence of the global economys deep, ongoing structural changes.

ֺηʵब򰭲ǡȤϰ餫Ǥä¡䤿ϡƳʺ礭ʤäƤ뤳ȤʵΰĤθǤꡢޤкѤοʹ¤Ѳη̤Ǥ⤢Ƥ

An economic and political system that does not deliver for most citizens is one that is not sustainable in the long run. Eventually, faith in democracy and the market economy will erode, and the legitimacy of existing institutions and arrangements will be called into question.

¿ι̱δԤ˱뤳ȤΤʤкѤΥƥϡĹŪˤߤƻ³ǽʤΤǤϤʤǽŪˤϡ̱ȻԾкѤο꤬»ʤ졢¸˵䤬ꤲǤ

The good news is that the gap between the emerging and advanced countries has narrowed greatly in the last three decades. Nonetheless, hundreds of millions of people remain in poverty, and there has been only a little progress in reducing the gap between the least developed countries and the rest.

ɤ˥塼롣ϡкѹʹȤγʺ30ǯ֤礭̾ƤƤ뤳ȤǤ롣Ǥⲿͤο͡Ϻξ֤ˤ롣Ϲ񥰥롼פȤʳι񡹤γʺ϶Ϥ̤ޤäƤʤ

Here, unfair trade agreements – including the persistence of unjustifiable agricultural subsidies, which depress the prices upon which the income of many of the poorest depend –
have played a role. The developed countries have not lived up to their promise in Doha in
November 2001 to create a pro-development trade regime, or to their pledge at the G-8
summit in Gleneagles in 2005 to provide significantly more assistance to the poorest countries.

Ըǰ׼᤬롣ǤʤϡϹ¿¸Ƥʪβʤ夬ʤ褦˰Ϥ򤫤Ƥ뤬⤬¸ߤƤΤǤ롣ʹ¦ϡ2001ǯ11˥ɡϤ«ȡĤޤ곫ȯǰȸä«̤ƤʤϡϹˤʤٱԤȤ2005ǯΥ󥤡륹«äƤʤ

The market will not, on its own, solve any of these problems. Global warming is a quintessential public goods problem. To make the structural transitions that the world needs, we need governments to take a more active role – at a time when demands for cutbacks are increasing in Europe and the US.

ֻԾϡ켫ȤǤϤ򲿤褹뤳ȤϤʤϵ岹ȲϡŵŪʡָפǤ롣ɬפȤ빽¤եȤ̤ˤϡ桹ܤˤäѶŪʹư餻ɬפ롣ƹǡ۽̤˾ȤǤ뤫

As we struggle with todays crises, we should be asking whether we are responding in ways that exacerbate our long-term problems. The path marked out by the deficit hawks and austerity advocates both weakens the economy today and undermines future prospects.
The irony is that, with insufficient aggregate demand the major source of global weakness
today, there is an alternative: invest in our future, in ways that help us to address simultaneously the problems of global warming, global inequality and poverty, and the
necessity of structural change.

ֲ桹ϡߤδƮʤĹŪ򰭲褦äƤΤǤϤʤ䤦ƤߤʤФʤʤ۽̺ɤˤäƼƻϡߤǤкѤᡢƾθ̤Ť롣ǤΤϡפ夤˸ߡкѤβƤ뤬аƤ뤳ȤǤ롣񤹤ΤǤ롣ϵ岹ȲȳʺϺꡢơ¤ѲбʤФʤʤƱн褹褦ʻǾ񤹤ΤǤ


Ǥʬˤʤä褦ˡƥåĶϡкѤĹŪƬǺޤƤΤǤ

ι񡹤ˤƳʺäƤǤϤʤȡƤޤϵ岹ȲϡƲ桹ʤƤ֤ˤ⡢˸߲ƤƤǤϤʤȡˤޤʹǤ¤Ȥ饵ӥȤؤȹ¤žޤɬפƤǤϤʤȡ

ϡԾǤƤǤϲ褵ʤ

Ĥޤꡢܤν֤ʤΤȡ

ñʥ󥸥ŪȯۤǤϤʤΤǤ

ܤˤϤʤʤΤ褦ʷкѳؼԤϸʤǤ͡


ƥåĶθȤʬäȸå򤪴ꤤפޤ

͵blog󥭥󥰤

Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

̤NHKΥ饸ʹƤ顢ǯμ¼кĹΨ2.5ˤʤä󤸤Ƥޤ

ޤĤǤܡäʹƤΤǡɤΤʬʤΤǤΤȤȤä˻פäΤǤ

ϡФƥեΨ2ˤʤ褦ˤʤ֤ȻؼƤ顢¼кĹΨ2.5ˤʤȤȤϡ̾ĹΨ4.5ˤʤȤȤȡ

줬ʤ顢ʤʸ̤

ɤ⤽ΤȤϤäꤷʤǡƤ鿷ʹʤɤǻ¤ǧ褦ȤƤ⡢餷ϽФƤʤǥͥåȤĴ٤ȡNHK󤸤Ƥޤ

¾󤸤ʤΤȸС˷ꤵΤ轵ˤγյĤǤΤȤˤʤΤǡɤ˷ꤵ줿ʤΤ褦ʤΤǤĤޤ¿ʬ˿¬ǤޤޤƤ롢ȡ

ˤƤ⡢NHKɤ󤸤Ƥ뤫ȸС

ܤϡǯ١ʿǯ٤ηкĹΨθ̤ˤĤơ緿ηккθ̤кѤβˤ͢ФäʤɤޤȤơʪư¼ǣȤˤǤޤά

ܤϿǯ٤ηкĹΨθ̤ˤĤơʪư¼ǣʪȿǤ̾ܤǣȤˤǤޤסNHK

̾ĹΨ2.7ǤϤʤǤ

̾ĹΨ2.7ǤꡢƼ¼ĹΨ2.5ȤȤϡʪξ徺Ψ0.2ȤȤˤʤΤǤ

ۤޤǤä

եΨ2ɸˤȸʤ顢ܤθ̤ȤƤϤä0.2ΥեΨ­ȤȤǤ

ơηˤĤơʹϼΤ褦󤸤ƤΤǤ


־ʪǯ棰򸫹Ǥ롣ǯΣǯ٤ĹΨϡ¼١̾ܣ٤򸫹Ǥס

ʪϡǯ0.5

ϡΤ0.2礭ˤƤ2ɸͤ٤оϤʤΤ

Ǥ⡢̾ĹΨȼ¼ĹΨκ륤եΨʪξ徺ΨȰۤʤΤ

졢ϡGDPǥե졼ϾʪؿȰȤϸ¤ʤʤΤǤ

ΤȤϤʬǤ͡

Ĥޤꡢʪؿоܤۤʤ뤫ʤΤǤGDPǥե졼ϡGDPΤ䥵ӥƤоݤȤʤΤФʪؿϡԤΤ䥵ӥоˤʤʤʤǤ

κݺ٤ȤϤɤǤ⤤

ˤƤ⤢ʪ夲褦ˤȸäƤܼȤʪξ徺Ψ0.5٤ȸѤΤǡʤΤʤΤǤ礦

Ȥ⡢λ¤˰դƤʤΤ

ˤƤ⡢⤽⥢٥Υߥϡ¼GDPοͤ̾GDPŻ뤹ˤǤϤʤäΤ

줬ˤơ¼GDPɤ뤫ʤƷȤȤϲ̣Τ

äѤ¼GDP夲ʤỌ̇̄ʤȤȤ˵դϤ᤿ȤȤ

轵ηγյĤǡˤɤΤ褦˷ꤵΤڤߤԤȻפޤ


Ȥơǯ٤ΥեΨ0.5ȤѤʤΤϡڤ̤ʤΤǤϤʤȤå򤪴ꤤפޤ

͵blog󥭥󥰤
Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

ǯκ椬ǰ׼٤31ǯֻ֤ˤʤäȤܤޤ2011ǯǰ׼٤ϡ2.5ߤֻˤʤäȡ

ơ2012ǯǰ׼٤ȯɽˤʤޤ¸ΤǤ礦

ޤʤƤȤϤʤǤ͡

ʤȤϤޤñ١Ǥ⳵ֻ³ƤǤʤСǯ֤οֻˤʤȦǤΤ11ޤǤ߷פֻ6ߤĶƤΤǤ

Ǥϡ2012ǯǰ׼٤

ʤ6.9ߤֻȡֻε쵤˺ǯ3ܼۤɤˤʤäΤǤ

͢С͢ǰ׼
2001ǯ48.9ߡ42.4ߡ6.5
2002ǯ52.1ߡ42.2ߡ9.8
2003ǯ54.5ߡ44.3ߡ 10.1
2004ǯ61.1ߡ49.2ߡ 11.9
2005ǯ65.6ߡ56.9ߡ8.7
2006ǯ75.2ߡ67.3ߡ7.9
2007ǯ83.9ߡ73.1ߡ 10.7
2008ǯ81.0ߡ78.9ߡ2.0
2009ǯ54.1ߡ51.4ߡ2.6
2010ǯ67.3ߡ60.7ߡ6.6
2011ǯ65.5ߡ68.0ߡ -2.5
2012ǯ63.7ߡ70.7ߡ -6.9ߡ
ʻǰס


ǰֻۤˤʤäƤΤˤ⹴餺߰¤θ٥Υߥˤʤͤβ¿Ȥ

󡢥٥ΥߥȿͿƶϸʤΤäȻפΤǤ顢󥢥٥ΥߥĤ礭ǤȤǤʤΤǤǤäƤ⤳ο֤˵®˱ߤ¤ʤƤȤطʤˤϡǰ׼٤ֻ夷Ƥ뤳Ȥȡ桼夤ƤƤ뤳ȤΤǤ

ˤƤ⡢ͽۤƤȤȤϤʤȼ䤷Ȥ

ΤϹͤ褦ʤΤǤ

ȤΤ⡢ۤǰֻ׾夷Ƥ¤˼СǶα߰¤줶ʤȻפΤǤ

Ǥ硩

ˡ⤽⤳12֤˵®˱߰¤˿줿¤ǤȤƤ⡢δ֡椬ϰزʤɰڹԤäƤʤΤǤ

󥢥٥ΥߥθǽƤΤϤΤȤǤ礦äƸǽȤΤϡ⳰λԾطԤ˱ߤϰ¤ʤǤͽ̤ۤ˲᤮ΤǤ顢лԾᥫ˥ˤäƷޤäȡäơܤդΤϤΤǤ

Ĥޤꡢ̲ߤβͤľܥȥ뤷Ƥڹ񡢰ϥʤɤȤä㤦ΤǤ

顢ܤȤϡإ졼ȤäˤʤäȤѤϤɬפϤʤزʤƤƤʤΤ顣

ΰǡܤƹǰ״طϤɤʤäƤΤȸСѤ餺ܤιƹֻȤطѤäƤʤΤǤ顢ȤСƹȤƤϡߤβͤХɥ;ˤ®㲼ȤݤǤʤ⤷ޤ

ΰǡܤϼˤɤι񡹤Ȥδط͢ĶˤʤäƤ뤫ȸСŷ͢ϰȤδطʤǤ

ơѴ߽ϡ̲ߤβͤɥ˸ꤵäƤΤ̤Ȥơ̲ߤβͤǶߤФƶʤäƤΤǤ

Ǥ⡢äƼʤȤǤ硩

ĤޤꡢѴ߽̲ߤβͤƥɥ˸ꤵ뤳Ȥƹǧǡܤαߤβͤޤ㲼Ƥ뤳Ȥ˲˥졼դ褦ϤȤˤʤΤǤ

ϡŪ˥٥Υߥα߰ٻˤʤޤ߰¤˴ؤơ졼बĤƤ褷ϤɬפϤʤΤǤ

ä򤷤Ƥ뤳Ȥס֤ˤʤޤܤϰزϹԤäƤʤΤǤ顣



߰¤ˤʤäƤ뺣͢дȤ򶯲٤Ȼפå򤪴ꤤפޤ

͵blog󥭥
Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

ե쥿åԤγϤ򤷤˰㤤ʤΤʤС⤦10ǯʾե쥿åȤߤ뤳Ȥĥ³äȼ¸Ǥ

Congratulations!ȸ٤ʤΤ

ƥӤо줹ɾȤΰոʹƤȡƥե쥿åȤѤƤ⡢ºݤ¶⤬äꡢʪ徺Ψɸͤã褦ˤʤ뤿ˤδ֤ɬפʤΤȤ

ϤǤ礦㤨¶ˤĤơкѳϡǯ¾夲Ϥʤ᡹ͽĥäƤǤŤ˲˴Ȥ᤬褦ʻ֤ˤʤäȤƤ⡢ñ¾夲¸Ȥϸ¤ʤʤΤǤ

Ǥϡ¾夲¸ˤʤΤ

äơǤϤޤ󤫡ʤȽ򸫤ʬޤޤ;򸫤ʬޤ

Ĥޤꡢ¾夲¸뤿ˤϡ˽ȴꤦ͡ĤޤϫƯζϫƯФפˤʤɬפ뤫Ǥϡñ˴Ȥμפ礷ȸäƼ¸Ȥϸޤ

󡢴Ȥɤɤ٤褦ˤʤäƴȵϤγ˾ФĤޤꡢѼԤ䤹褦ˤʤСʤ¶⤬夬뤳ȤʬԤǤ褦ˤޤŲ̤Ƥι𲽤ŸܤǺưȯˤʤ褦ʤȤͤΤȤǰǤ

Ȥ顢ư뤿κŪкȤƤϡΰͤûȤȿФΤԤǤϤʤǤ礦ĤޤꡢͤûѤ롢ȡ

ˤϡ뺧Υ󥹤˷äޤʤ褦ʿͤ¿Τǡ뺧򤷤顢ʤҤɤߤޤ礦ܤ侩롢ȡʤƤ2ͤ3ͤϻߤȡ

ơΤ褦ʸƤӤ˼㤤͡Ƥ褦ˤʤС͸θˤ⥹ȥåפꡢҤäȤҤɤ⤿ο뤫⤷ޤ

顢ɤʤޤ

ΤȤʤ顢֤ʤҶʤ褦ˤʤǤ礦ʤСȤȤƤ롢ȡĤޤꡢʤȽȰκѤ䤹ɬפΤǡ¶夲ʤȡ

ʤС¶⤬夬ǥեϲäǤ硩

ܤºݤˤäƤ뤳Ȥϡ̳ε򲼤褦ʤȤФꡣ󡢼ҲŪݤ뤿ˡ줬⤷ޤ

ȤǤäƤ⡢̡̳ˤʤꤿͤοϸǤ礦äˡͥʿͤΤʤˤϡ⤦⤤ӤȻפơΤ褦ưޤСִ̱ȤȤƤϵ夲ʤƤͥʿͺबݤǤΤǡ¶夲ɬפΤȤʤΤǤ

顢ñ˴ȤζӤɤʤäȤäơʤʤ¶⤬夬ȤޤǤϴԤǤʤΤǤȤС޷äƤ뤿ˡǤοͼ­αƶ¾ζȳˤޤǵڤӡη̡ϫƯΤ¶⤬夬롢ȡ

ˤƤ⡢ǽ礭ʤ뤫ɤϡͭΨߤƤͽۤդǤ礦

Ǥϡʪ夬ǽϤɤǤ礦

ϡȾȤʪ夬äƤ뤫ɤơ¸뤿䤬äȻŻ򤷤Ƥ뤫򥦥åȡޥޤΤ褦ʤȤäƤΤǤΨľ˸äơñˤϾ夬ʤǤ礦

2ʪ夲Ȥɸ¸ǤʤȤʤСʤץå㡼Ǥ礦ơǽŪˤϡ⤦Ǥ⤢ζͻŸ졢ɤˤΥեΨ¸Ǥ礦

Ǥϡʪɸã줿Ȥ˫Τ̱ϥåԡˤʤ
ΤǤ礦

¤ϡʪ夬äƤ̱ϥϥåԡˤϤʤʤΤǤʤΤǤʾ¶⤬夬ʤȡष礭ʤǤ礦

Ǥϡʪ2徺뤳Ȥˤʤä¶⤬夬ʤȤϼ¼GDPʤȤ顢ȤƤϤɤΤ褦ʹư˽ФǤ礦

¿ʬʪξ夬ޤʤ餤ʤȤȤˤʤǤ礦Ĥޤꡢ2ʤƤΤϡtoo little ȡ

ʤȡκʪ徺Ψܤ4˾夲٤Ȥʤ뤫⤷ޤ󡣤ʪ4夲뤿ˤϤ̵ʶͻŸ뤳ȤˤʤǤ礦餯Ĥ䤬ľܰ褦ʤȤ⡢ˡǤäǤԤ뤳Ȥˤʤ뤫⤷ޤ

Ǥ⡢Ǥ͡ξưˤۤɤѲɽʤС

ʤСեΨ10̤˾ޤΤȤ褦Ф뤫⤷ޤ󡣼ʬΥե쥿åȤɸϤʤȾФǤäΤʤƸäơ

Ǥϡ10ΥեΨ¸ǤȤơܷкѤǽϤɤۤɤΤǤ礦

ϤޤΤ褦̲ߤζ̤ä뤳Ȥˤäƥե򵯤ȤȤϡǥΥߤȿФ֤뤳Ȥˤäƥե򵯤ȤȤϤɤʰ㤤ΤȤ䤬뤫⤷ޤ

Ĥޤꡢ㤨Сκݵʬ쿷ǡޤǤ1߻򿷤2߻˸򴹤Ȥ֤äȤɤʤȡ

¿ʬʤС®䤫ʪ2ˤʤǤ礦

Ȥ顢ּüᤤΤǤϤʤΤ

ˤƤ⡢ƶŪʪ夲ȤơɤΤ褦ʥᥫ˥ǷʵɤʤΤǤ礦

ƥӤΥ磻ɥ硼򸫤ƤȡΤȤ˴ؤơե줬С͡Ͼʤ;夬ꤹ˹ޤȤŤʤƸäƤޤ2ΥեΨǡ˾ԤιưѥѲɽΤǤ礦

¿ʬեΨ20ٰʾˤʤʤȸѲɽʤǤ礦

ȤȤʪ夲뤳ȤˤäƾѥѲ򵯤ȹͤͤ餹С2ʪɸͤʤФ˲᤮ʤΤǤ

ʪ夬褦ˤʤäƤ⡢ʵˤۤɤѲɽʤäʪɸͤ夲٤Ȥʤꡢסɸͤ夲뤳ȤȤʤǤ礦



ԶæФ뤿ˤϡܤδȤΤߤȻפ褦ʾʤɤɤȯʤȤ͡Ȼפå򤪴ꤤפޤ

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Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

ϡͻǡ2ʪɸͤѤ뤳ȤꤷʻܤȤζƱʸƤꤹ󤸤Ƥޤ

ޤ줷ƻϤʤΤǤ礦

٥ΥߥȤĶζͻ˴ؤͤ˽С줷ʤȤȤޤ褦ˡؤȳȿƤǤ顢ΰ̣ǤϾ餢äȤ٤ǡï⥢٥ΥߥȿФǤʤࡼɤ夬äƤΤǤ

ޤʤ餽ǤǤ礦̱Ūʼ³ФؤưդơΰʶͻĥǤ顢ʤȸСʤ

̡ĶäƤȤꡢˤϼʤΩǧ뤬ɸΩǧʤȤΤǤС2ʪɸͤ˲դʾ塢ܤȤơݡȤȤơ2ʪɸͤߤ뤳ȤɬפǤΤ̱ʬפǤΤǤ

ȤΤ⡢ΤȤƱͤ˹̱Τʤˤ⥤ե쥿åȤߤ뤳Ȥ򶯤ĥ͡ΤϤΤȤǤΤ褦ʿ͡Ϲ̱Τʤζ˰˲᤮ޤ

¿ι̱夬褦ʻäߤȴäƤΤϤΤȤǤ礦Ʊˡ¿ι̱ϡʪ夬褬줷ʤȤ԰´ƤΤ¡ϡκݡ̱˸äʬפ٤ʤΤǤ

111Ρ۵޷ккꤷݤ˹ԤäԲ񸫤Ǥ⡢ΤȤˤĤƤϲäƤʤΤǤäƤΤϡ3ܤȥѥ礭Ȥä

ޤ䤬ʤȤСեɤο͡ϼΤ褦⤷ޤ

ǥե줫æѤ뤳ͥȸäƤΤ顢ΤɸͤߤΤǤϤʤȡ

ǥեʪ³Ū㲼뤳Ȥ򤹤ΤǤСΤˡʪ徺Ψ򹱾Ū˥ץ饹˰ݻǤСǥǥե줫æѤȤˤʤΤϤΤȤǤ礦

Ǥ̱¿ϡ줫ʹΤǤ

ʪǯ2پ夬褦ˤʤäȤޤ礦ĤǤˡǽ㤤Τεʪ˹碌ǯ2پ夬褦ˤʤäȤޤ礦

Ǥϼ¼ĹΨȤȤǤ顢ޤǤؤѤ꤬ʤʤΤˡʪ2夬뤳ȤۤɽפʤȤʤΤȡ

äȸС¸βǽʤȤϸʤȤΤΰʪ徺Ψɸͤ2Ȥǡ̾GDPοΨ3ɸȤȸäƤǤ顢¼ĹΨ1٤ʤʤΤǤ

Ǥ⤷ʤȤ⡢ʤ⤷ʤ1μ¼ĹΨ¸뤳Ȥ٥ΥߥΥѥ礭Ȥ̣ʤΤǤ礦

¼ĹΨǯΨ1ä顢ޤǤȤɤɤ㤦ΤǤ礦

㤨СޤǤϲʪǯ1ٲƤȤơΰǡ̾GDPοΨ0ȤС¼GDPοΨ1ˤʤǤξ֤٤ƲɤȸΤǤ礦

ֽ̾ѹդκʬʺʬۡˤĹˤ٤ϽСפȤΤϰξǤ

Ǥ¼ĹΨѤ꤬ʤСɤ٤ϽФ줿ȸȤǤΤǤ礦ѥ礭ѤʤǤϤޤ󤫡٤ȻפΤϤβͤˡ̾ܥ١Ǥäǡ桹Ǥ뿩ʪʪϤʳ͡ʾʡ͡ʥӥ̤˰㤤ϤʤΤǤ

顢ɤᥫ˥٤ɲŪϽФ뤳ȤˤʤΤΤȤʬפ̱ߤǤ

ǡˤĤơɤΤ褦Τ򾡼äȤꡢʥꥪ3ĤۤɤˤʤΤǤ

1.ʪ徺ȡ͡ϡǥե̤ȿФˡʤβʤ夬˹褦ƾ񤬳뤫顣

2ʪ徺ǡ̾ܶ夬ʤ褦ˤ뤳ȤǤС¼㲼뤳ȤȤʤ뤬ʤдȤμ¼ŪʶôڤʤΤǡư¥ʤ뤫顣

3. ʪ徺ȤȤ̲߲ͤ㲼뤳Ȥ̣뤬ʤбߤŪгͤ㲼롢Ĥޤߤ¤ʤΤܤ͢ФˤȤäͭˤʤ뤫顣


ǡǤ礦

ɤ줬դιͤʤΤǤ礦ϡ3ĤȤ⤽ǤȤͤʤΤǤ礦

3ĤͳˤĤơɤι̱Ǽ뤳ȤǤǤ礦

ǯ2ʪ夬褦ˤʤäȤơ桹̱ưѲΤ

¿ʬۤɤθ̤ϤʤǤ礦줬륷åΥ­ˤäʪˤʤäΤ褦ʾˤʤä̤Ǥ2٤ʪξ徺Ǥ桹Ԥؤȿ򼨤ʤǤ礦

Ǥϡʪ夬Ƕ夬ʤС¼ΤǡǴȤưɷ㤹ȤͤǡǤ礦

˲äơʪ夬СϤȿƾ夬Ϥ뤫ʤΤǤ

ɴäơϤۤɾ夬餺ˡºݤ˼¼äȤƤ⡢ˤäƴȤư䤹Ȥˤʤ뤫ɤ礤˵ǤˤƤ⡢ΤȤˤĤƤϡȷбļԤʹʬ뤳ȤʤΤǤ

Ǥ3ܤΡ߰¤ˤʤ뤫ܤ͢ФˤȤäͭˤʤȤͤϤɤǤ礦

ޤΤ褦ͳʤ͢дȤ紿ޤ뤫ȡǤºݤ˴߰¤ˤʤäȤƤ⡢줬եη̤ȤƤα߰¤ǤʤС͢дȤȤƤϡեˤʤäʬʲʤ夲ʤкλʤΤäơ߰¤η̡ߥ١͢⤬Ƥ⡢᤬ȤˤϤʤʤΤǤ

㤨С1ɥ80ߤǤɤˤλƤ͢дȤˤȤäơޤ1ɥ뤬90ߤˤʤСʤ1ɥʬ80ƤΤ90ߤˤʤꡢ10᤬׻ˤ⤷ǥեˤʤä̡80ߤΤΤ90ߤ;夬ꤷȤС1ɥʬ夲ߥ١⤬80ߤ90ߤȤƤ⡢ǤäȥڥΤȤǤ顢¼ŪˤʤΤǤ

ʤȤ䤬ȡɤŪʤȤФΤȤäаƤ򼨤Ȥä餹͡ΤͽۤƤޤ

ʤƤ⡢Ф2ʪɸͤȼĥΤǤ顢Ȥʬǡ̱ʬפ̳ΤǤ

ֺ¤ƻԤĤ⤤ǤϤʤפʤƤǶ褯ޤѤ㤢ޤ󤫡

ɤơ̤˹ưƤǡ¤ƻ̤ȤˤʤΤǤ礦

դȯۤˤΤ򴶤ΤǤ

郎ϤޤäΤ⡢ϤȸСܤԶ˴٤ꡢΦ˳ϩ뤳ȤϤޤäǤ

¤ƻԤĤΤʤƸäԤäΤǤ




Τˡϡʪξ徺Ψ2ˤʤä鲿ηʵ褯ʤȹͤΤ٤Ȼפå򤪴ꤤפޤ

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Υȥ꡼ϤƤʥ֥åޡɲ

䡢ˡĹ춵ΤȤĻȤפȷƤޤкѳؤǰܤƤ͡οͤäʹСۤïˤʤ뤫ʬ뤫⤷ʤݡοͤۤ⤷ʤȡ

ߤˡĹϡ֤ϤޤפȤɤߤΤȤɤʹ褦ʤ̾Ǥ͡Ǥι˽˷ȸƤФƤϥ⡢ϤޤĹˤǤ

ĶNHKƤȤ˽б餷ΤΡǯΤIMF̳ΤȤ򥬥ȸƤꡢͪͺȤƤǤϤɤⲡäѤʤˤ⸫Ȥ

ʹ֤äơäƥƥӥä򤵤ȡΤ餫ˤΤǤ͡

ؤζʤƸ񤭤򼨤ȡηȤƤϡϤϡȿ᤿ʤΤǤ

ˤƤĶܶԤԡ٤פʤȯ٤ʤ餺٤֤ⷫȡϲǤ᤮Ȼפ虜ˤϤʤΤǤ

ΡĶϤΤ褦ȯ򤹤ΤǤ礦

ϡԡ߹Τ˹ݶĤ뤳ȤǤʤäȡ

Ǥϡ߹⤬ʤä饨ԡĤ줿Τ

ä򿮤ȳطԤؤɤʤȻפΤǤ߹ƶΤϻ¤⤷ʤ줬ŪװǤϤʤäȦȡ

ˡ˱߹⤬ŪװˤʤäȤƤ⡢Ǥϡα߹⤿餷ΤϡܶԤΤʤΤ

ǤϤʤǤ礦

äơܡ̳ʤν꾸ˤʤäƤ뤫Ǥ䤬ܤλؼ˽ºݤ˰ػԾ˲ΤϤΤȤȤƤ⡢ܤμ­ȤưƤΤ˲᤮ʤΤǤ

顢ܤ߹򤹤뤳ȤǤʤäΤȤΤǤФޤڤ̤äƤΤˡ䤬ȤΤϤ

ޤɤ̤ˤơ䤬ʶͻ¤򤷤Ƥб߹⤬ǤȤȤĶȤƤ⡢ܶԤäƤʤƤǤϤʤޤǴº٤ǤäǤϤʤǤ

Ǥ¤­ʤȸΤǤСϡ⤽ˤĤľܰػߤˡȤ٤ǤäơʤСˡΧʤΩˡܡĤޤİǤȤ٤ǤϤʤΤǤ礦

Ǥ򰭤ȸäƤޤ

ˤƤ⡢ʹƤȡĤΤȤ⤫Ӿ夬äƤΤǤ

ܤô뤫䤬ô뤫̤ȤơȤˤߤ¤뤳ȤܷкѤˤȤäɬפǤĶ̡ͤƤȤ¤Ǥ

Τˡ꡼ޥ󥷥åʹߤα߹;ˤäΤǤ

ǤʤƤ⡢ƱԶ˳ʤФפ礭ǤΤˡä߹⤬äΤŤΰ̣ܤ͢Ф礭­ˤʤäΤǤ

ơθ塢桼ΤȤˤäƤ߹⤬줿ȡ

Τ褦ʰ̣ǤϡưؤοˤޤäƤ줿ŤȤ͢дȤλפʬʤǤʤΤǤ

ơ餳̱λˤƤ⡢Ķ߹ȿž褦絬ϤʰزԤäΤǤη̤ϡ󤴾ΤΤ褦ˤۤɤθϤޤǤĶ߹򿩤ߤ̤Ϥä⤷ʤΤ褦˾Ƥοˤޤǰ̤᤹ϤʤäΤǤ

ٺ٥Υߥθǽȡ

褢ȸ֤˱߰¤˿졢1ɥ=90ߡХ桼Ǥϡ1桼120ߡ

͢жȳˤȤäƤϵ￴ϤؿǤǤ礦餳夬ΤǤ

Ǥϡ̤礭߰ά򡢥٥ΥߥΰĤȤǤФƤΤʤΤ

˻԰¤򴶤ΤǤΤʤС٥Υߥ3ܤ1ĤǤʶͻ¤Ȥ¤ɽեͶƳ˸ʤ⡢߰¤ȤˤȳδطԤǧ褦ˤʤСܤФȽƤ˹ޤ붲줬뤫Ǥ

ơäȽޤС߰¤ήޤȿžʤȤ¤ʤΤǤ

䡢ĤۤΰĤϡ߰¤򵯤Ʋ;ˤ˶֤ȤˤȻޤ

󡢤Ȥäܤεξ˼ʬк˱ɤ뤲ФʤƹͤǤϤʤΤդΤ򤷤Ƥ餦Τ񤷤ΤǤ

ȤƤϡޤ;ˤ߹⤬ʤΤǡ꡼ʥ֥˽ȤǧǤΤǤ礦ˤϤϱޤäˡƹ񤫤СʤΤǤȤΤƴ֤ǰϡĶ߹⤬ʤǤȤäƤ⡢Ǥ⤺äܤιƹֻȤطѤäƤʤʤΤǤ

ĤޤꡢʤƤƹ񤫤ܤϸˤʤΤǤ

Ķեɤο͡ϡϢ䲤꡼ޥ󥷥åʹߡޥͥ꡼١Ūΰǡܤޥͥ꡼١οΨ;ˤ㤫äΤǡȤĶ߹⤿餷ȼĥޤ

Τ褦ʥʥ֤ʵ򿮤ͤϡ̳ǤϾɤȸäƤΤǤϤʤǤ礦

˸äȤޤƹˤƥޥͥ꡼١ǯƤΤǤȤƤϡԤϢͭĹηƤäǤäơ˽в뤪̤ºݤˤۤƤǤϤʤǤ

ɴäơޥͥ꡼١䤹Ȥˤäưإ졼ȤꤵȤΤǤСɥ뤬ߤФư¤ʤˡƹǹ󤤥ե줬ƤʤäʤΤǤ㤤ޤ

򶲤줺˸С̾إ졼ȤΤûŪˤ⳰ζǤꡢĹŪˤϹݼ٤ưǤȸäƤǤ礦ˤƤ⡢ˤäػԾˤ̲ߤפȶ뤬ȯǤꡢ鼫̲ߤ̤äƤ⡢줬ػԾˤ̲ߤμפȶѲ⤿餵ʤСθ̤ʤΤǤ

äơ񤬼̲ߤ¤άͭƤȤƤ⡢ǽŷ˸ˤ褦Ȥ̾ǤʤΤǤ

ʤȤСȽΤܤ˸ƤΤǡȤܲȤƼ̲ߤ¤äȤƤ⡢ˤ꡼ʤɳˤϤʤΤǤ

ƹΥХΤϡ͢Ф5ǯ֤뤳ȤˤäƸѤϽФȲǯ˸ޤĤޤꡢХΤˤȤäƤˤ䤫ʥɥ¤Ѵ򤷤˰㤤ʤΤǤ褷Ƥˤ뤳Ȥޤ

̲߰άϡ1930ǯζٵ˳˵ꤷƤޤʤΤǤơ桼Ȥ̲ߤѤƤΤ⡢ζƧޤƤΤȤʤΤǤ

顢̲餫˶ؤΤǤ

ȤƧޤСȤƤ⡢褷Ʊ߰¤ͶƳ뤳ȤȤʤɤȸɬפϤʤΤǤʤȤСФƷޤ褦ʤΡǥեæѤΤ˶ͻ¤³Ƥǡη̡Ū˱߰¤˿ƤΤʡȸФäǤ

̡θäʹƤȡ;ˤľޤ

㤨СϡƤäƼ̲ߤ¤ƤǤϤʤȸޤ̲߰¶򤷤ʤȤ롼äƤΤܤȡ

ʤξ˻Ƥ뵤ޤ

ܤάƤɡ⤽˥˿άƤΤϲƽϤʤäΤȡܤ˿ʽФ뤳ȤȽǤ񤬤Τȡ

Ǥ⡢񤤤ä餷ƤϤʤΤǤͤϡܲϰ㤦ȤˤäƤ⡢»ΤΤ褦˿񤦤٤ȡ

̣ǡδɳܶԤ˰ܤʤɤȤȤ򤷤顢餹С줳ܤʰƤڵȤƤߤʤޤĤޤԤŪ˹Ԥͻ˰ޤޤƤ顢ιԤԾΥᥫ˥Ƿ٤إ졼Ȥ˰Ϥ򤫤ƤȸʤͤʤǤ

ܿͤǤ顢ɤǤäƤ⡢鰭뤳Ȥϴ򤷤ޤ

Τˤ⡢߰¤ˤƲʤɤȤ϶Ϲĺ߰¤˿ƤʤΤǤϡŤʤƸ򤷤ȻפΤǤ




ܤǤ⤦˿ɬפ뤫⡢Ȼפå򤪴ꤤפޤ

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