A-Bomb In-utero Survivor Speaks, 花の写真

花・風景の写真、ヒロシマと原爆(English)

NO MORE HIROSHIMAS!
PEACE NEVER FLOWS FROM HATE.

Version française de ce blog "LILIH": http://lilih0.wordpress.com/

Welcome to my blog! 

  I am one of the youngest A-bomb survivors. My mother was four months pregnant with me when she entered the center of Hiroshima three days after the bombing.  I was very sickly in my childhood.
  In spite of two serious diseases, my mother is now 96 years old.
  My father was three kilometers from the hypocenter when the A-bomb was dropped, but he lived to be 93.
  My grandfather was 600m from the hypocenter and died one month later. Here is my mother's testimony about her father's death. Please read it.
  I have been guiding at the A-bomb Dome almost eight years to tell the truth, hoping that world opinion will lead to the abolition of inhumane weapons. Please speak to me when you visit Hiroshima and find me.
 
  I was often asked to make an English blog, and I have just made it. I hope it will help you know “HIROSHIMA”.
  I love taking pictures, especially those of flowers.  Please enjoy the pictures I photographed.
 An American couple I guided made a film entitled "That Day" , appealing for abolition of nuclear weapons. Please watch it.
E-mail:mi-to@enjoy.ne.jp 
MITO Kosei, May 18, 2014 
02 

Q:What was the original dome used for

·  It was the Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall, which opened in August 1915 to display and sell local products and to hold various exhibitions.  It was like a department store.  As the building was designed by a Czech architect, it was a unique European style building and very popular among citizens.

·  Products sold there included oysters, agricultural products, and woodworks, such as furniture (chest), kitchenware (tray) and musical instruments (koto).

·  During the war, it was used by governmental organizations.  It is said there were about 30 persons working in the building that morning, and all of them perished.

 Q:Why did Japan start the war

·  Japan was ruling or controlling Korean Peninsula, Taiwan and Northeastern part of China.  Opposing it, the U.S. along with other countries took severe economic sanctions against Japan.  Japan was desperate for natural resources, especially for oil and metal.

·  Southeast Asia then was controlled by various western nations (U.S.: Philippines, U.K.: India/Myanmar, France: Viet Nam/Laos/Cambodia, Netherlands: Indonesia, Portugal: East Timor).  Japan said the war was to release those Asian countries from western control.  But, the truth was Japan intended to get natural resources from the area.

 Q:What do you think of Pearl Harbor attack

·  I believe, without the Pearl Harbor attack, the pacific war should have begun sooner or later. Conflict between Japan and the U.S. was so intense.

·  Hiroshima and Honolulu, where the Pearl Harbor is, became sister cities in 1959 to cooperate for the world peace. It was a symbolic event of reconciliation between citizens of the two nations.
New American:
Pearl Harbor: Hawaii Was Surprised; FDR Was Not, Written by James Perloff 
"Comprehensive research has shown not only that Washington knew in advance of the attack, but that it deliberately withheld its foreknowledge from our commanders in Hawaii in the hope that the "surprise" attack would catapult the U.S. into World War II." 
Q:Were Japanese people against the war

·  People were taught and believed it was the right war for Japan to help Asian countries.  American and British were very brutal and Asian people were badly suffering.

·  Japanese government and the military authorities controlled civilians very tight.  If a person openly opposed against the war, the person was called “a traitor” and arrested.

 Q:Was there any warnings of the A-bombing

·  No, there were only general warnings which said, if Japan did not surrender immediately, you would get more intense air raids.

·  American military authorities had decided not to give a specific warning in advance.  Because they thought, if a specific warning was issued, Japanese forces might prepare to intercept American bombers, evacuate from the target area, or bring American POWs there.

 Q:Was the use of nuclear weapons illegal

·  There was no international law which explicitly said it was illegal to use nuclear weapons.  But, a wartime international law adopted in the 1889 Hague Peace Conference prohibits from use of weapons which inflict unnecessary agony on persons.

·  In July 1996, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) (in Hague, Netherlands) formed a judgment that the threat or use of nuclear weapons would be a violation of international law applicable to armed conflict. 

 At the time of bombing ]

 Q:Why wasn’t the warning issued

·  At the last stage of the Pacific war, American bombers frequently came over Japan in a big formation.  Planes flying in a small number were sometimes overlooked.

·  Japan’s bomber watch system was tricked by a tactic of the U.S. forces.  One hour before the A-bomb attack, a plane flew over Hiroshima from west to east. Analyzing radio communication of the plane, it was thought that the plane was to check weather for a bombing and bombers would follow the plane.  As bombers always had come on the same direction as a weather-scouting plane, a watch system in the area focused on west.  But, the bomber carrying the A-bomb (Enola Gay) came from east.  When the system found Enola Gay, it was too late.  The A-bomb exploded before a warning was issued.

 Q:Why did they use the two different types of atomic bombs

·  They had no confidence to develop an atomic bomb in time, so they attempted two ways.  Finally, they had succeeded in both ways.  They made one uranium bomb and two plutonium bombs.  As the mechanism of a plutonium bomb is complicated, they needed a test to see if it works.  One plutonium bomb was used for a test, and others were used to attack Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

 Q:Why did the U.S. military make the atomic bomb explode in the air

·  It was intentional.  The U.S. military thought, because the bomb had immense power, violent blast would reach further when it detonated high up in the air.  The bomb exploded at 600m above the ground, and created such devastation as intended.  It’s said, if the bomb detonated on the ground, a big hole of 300m diameter and 50-150m depth would have been created.

·  The U.S. military knew radiation and heat rays would be emitted from the A-bomb as well as blast, but they didn’t know strength of their destructive power.  So, they counted only on blast to attack the city.
 
Q:What’s the difference the explosive power between Hiroshima bomb and Nagasaki bomb?

·  Power of Hiroshima bomb was 16Kton (TNT equivalent), and Nagasaki bomb was 21Kton.  Nagasaki bomb was 1.3 times more powerful than Hiroshima one.

·  In Nagasaki, the bomb exploded at the point over 3km off the target.  As it was less populated area, the number of casualties was much less than in Hiroshima.

 after the bombing ]

 Q:Did Japanese people know that the bombs were atomic bombs soon after the bombing

·  No.  On the next day, Imperial Headquarters merely announced that Hiroshima was somewhat damaged by a new type bomb.  But they didn’t mention it was an atomic bomb until after the war.

·  Just after the war, Japan was occupied by the allied powers.  Occupation forces were afraid that, if devastating damages caused by the A-bomb became widely known in Japan, people might have ill feeling against American.  It might disturb their occupation operations and drive Japan to Soviet Union group.  So, they imposed a press code which prohibited reporting about the A-bombing.

 Q:How long did the press code last

·  It was in effect until the peace treaty between Japan and the U.S. became effective in Apr., 1952.

·  During May 1946 and Nov. 1948, Tokyo military court was held by the allied powers.  Over 20 Japanese leaders were found guilty of causing the war.  And, it was considered Americans were not to be blamed for the result of the war.  In that situation, application of the press code was getting eased.

 Q:What kind of symptoms did the victims develop

·  Symptoms of acute disorder include high fever, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting blood, exhaustion, hair loss and so on.

·  People including doctors didn’t know about radiation disease, so patients were diagnosed as dysentery and isolated in closed areas.

 Q:How long did residual radiation stay

·  Residual radiation did not stay long in Hiroshima, unlike other radiation contaminated areas such as Marshall Islands, Chernobyl and Gulf War area.  It became negligible within 2 weeks or a month.

·  The Japanese Government certifies a person as an A-bomb survivor, in case the person entered an area within 2km of the hypocenter in two weeks after the explosion.  It means residual radiation became negligible after 2 weeks from the bombing.

·  Residual radiation includes induced radiation and radioactive fallout.  Induced radiation which was created in soil and buildings by collision of neutrons became negligible in 100 hours.  Radioactivity of fallout was very weak, but when it entered human body through mouth or nose, it would give serious damages.

 Q:Why didn’t residual radiation stayed long in Hiroshima

·  There are three major reasons.  Radiation emitted from the Hiroshima A-bomb was much less, comparing H-bomb tests or the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident. Secondly, the bomb exploded high up in the sky, and heated air went up to create a huge mushroom cloud.  Radioactive dust spread over the cloud, and density of radioactive fallout became very light.  Thirdly, a big typhoon(#) attacked Hiroshima a month later, and washed radioactive materials away.

 (#) The Makurazaki Typhoon which attacked Japan on Sept. 17-18.  Hiroshima heavily suffered.  Over 3,700 persons were killed or missing.  It was one of the three biggest typhoons in the Showa era with Muroto (1934.9) and Isewan (1959.9) Typhoons.

 Q:Did the survivors get enough support

·  No.  Because of the press code, which had been enforced by the allied forces and was effective until 1952, tragic suffering in Hiroshima was not officially discussed in Japan and survivors didn’t get special support for long.

·  A law for medical support was enacted in 1957, and a law for living benefit in 1968.  It was over two decades after the bombing.

 Q:Did the U.S. compensate for the war damage

·  The U.S. didn’t compensate for the war damage at all, including A-bomb damages. According to the judgment of Tokyo Court, it was considered Japan’s leaders were fully responsible for causing the devastating damage.

·  The U.S. helped a lot Japan for its reconstruction.  They thought, as Japan was desperate for aid for restoration, if the U.S. didn’t give hands, Japan might go to the Soviet Union for help.

 Q:What happened to Japanese leaders after the war

·  In the Tokyo Court held after the war, over 20 Japanese leaders were found guilty of a “crime against peace” or a “crime against humanity”, and sentenced to death or to life.  In total, 5,700 Japanese were brought into military courts, and 1,000 of them were killed.

·  The U.S. allowed the Emperor stay in the position as a symbol of Japan, for the people of Japan were desperate to keep the Emperor.

 Q:Did Japan compensate the countries

·  Japan formally compensated 4 countries (Philippines, South Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos).  Many other countries gave up their claim rights.  In return, Japan offered free fund supplies to most of those countries.  The compensations had been officially settled by 1977 to all suffered countries except North Korea.

·  Japan’s compensations were not paid to individuals, but they were used for social infrastructures, such as building dams and ironworks.

 today]

 Q:Can you detect radiation now

·  Yes, though it’s in a very special case.  Several years ago, a scientist detected radiation from marks of black rain, which is exhibited in the radiation corner of this museum.  He had to use advanced equipment of super high precision, because radiation level is very low.  It’s impossible to detect the A-bomb’s residual radiation in ordinary circumstance.

 Q:Is there any radiation effect on second generation

·  An official statement from the Japanese government says there is no radiation effect on the second generation.

·  By the request of the second generation, a large scale study has just started.  It may take some time to conclude the study.

 Q:Do the survivors hate Americans

·  That may depend on individuals.  I believe most survivors don’t have grudges against the U.S. no more.  They think it was a war and a nuclear weapon that caused such suffering, and wish to hand over a world free of war and nuclear weapon to their descendant.  They think grudges create only a chain of retaliations.

·  Survivors are now strongly blaming the U.S. for they are not aggressive to give up nuclear weapons.  That is their obligation agreed upon in the NPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty).  The U.S. is still conducting nuclear tests and developing a new type of nuclear weapons.

 Q:Do Japan have nuclear weapons

·  No.  Japan has the Three Non-Nuclear Principles, which are no production, no possession and no introduction of nuclear weapons.

·  According to the Japan-U.S. Mutual Security Treaty, the U.S. must consult the Japanese government before bringing any nuclear weapons into Japan.  Japanese government says U.S. battleships visiting Japan’s port are not equipped with nuclear weapons because they don’t tell they have ones.

 Q:Do you think that a nuclear deterrent works?

·  No. As nuclear technology is advancing, nuclear weapons will become smaller and handier.  When terrorist groups get those weapons, a nuclear deterrent won’t work.

 Q:Did any American presidents visit the museum

·  The only American president visited the museum was Jimmy Carter, the 39th President of the U.S.  In May 1984, he visited Hiroshima after leaving of office.

·  In Sept. 2008, Nancy Pelosi, the Speaker of the House, visited the museum.  She attended the G8 Lower House Speaker’s Meeting held in Hiroshima.  She was the highest rank American visited the museum.

   (by Ken'ichi Harada, volunteer guide of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum)
 
Q: Were any Americans killed by the A-bomb?
 
Yes, 12 POWs were killed. Here is a sruvivor's testimony.
DATE WITH THE ‘LONESOME LADY’ A Hiroshima POW Returns by Lt. Tom C. Cartwright
 

 Q:What percent of the U.S. population justify the A-bombing?

Sixty-four years after America dropped atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, American voters say 61 – 22 percent, with 16 percent undecided, that it was the right thing to do, according to a Quinnipiac University poll released today.

Weaker support for President Harry Truman’s decision is 49 – 29 percent among Democrats, 51 – 27 percent among women, and 50 – 32 percent among voters 18 – 34 years old, the independent Quinnipiac University poll finds.

Voters over 55 years old approve 73 – 13 percent, while voters 35 to 54 approve 60 – 23 percent. 

Strongest support is 74 – 13 percent among Republicans and 72 – 17 percent among men.

While Protestants, Catholics and evangelical Christians all support the bombing by about 70 -15 percent, while Jews support it 58 – 26 percent.
The whole text:http://y-sonoda.asablo.jp/blog/imgview/2009/08/06/b6bd6.jpg.html 

 :What made Japan decide to surrender?

Before the bomb was used, U.S. intelligence officials believed the war would likely end when two things happened: When the U.S. let Japan know their Emperor could stay on as a figurehead, and when the Soviet army attacked. The U.S. did tell Japan the Emperor could remain, and the Soviets declared war, as agreed, on August 8.
Boston.com: Why did Japan surrender? 
"Sixty-six years ago, we dropped a nuclear bomb on Hiroshima. Now, some historians say that’s not what ended the war." 
:How many people die?

The A-bomb devastated nearly all administrative agencies and destroyed official documents. Thus, the exact number of death due to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima remains unknown. Many victims were never identified.

According to a document submitted by the city of Hiroshima to the United Nations in 1976 entitled “For the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons and the Reduction of All Armed Forces and All Armaments,” an estimated 140,000 (±10,000) people died as a result of the A-bomb between August 6, 1945, and the end of December.

Not only Japanese but approximately 20,000 Koreans, 12 American POWs and 8 Asian students studying at Hiroshima University died.

After that, many survivors died of cancer or some other diseases, but it is very difficult to prove the relation between their diseases and radiation, and moreover, even now lots of survivors are not acknowledged as survivors and can’t get “survivor’s health book.”

Q:What is "A-bomb survivor' book"? - click this title
2420 in South Korea, 850 in the United States, 140 in Brazil and 3660 in other 30 countries (as of March ,2005)

 
Q:How many victims, who were within 500m from the hypocenter, live now?
Twelve victims (2 men and 10 women = blue spots) are alive now (June 1, 2014) and 78 victims (yellow and blue spots)  were alive in 1972 (27 years after the war). Most of them were in solid buildings, and six were in crowded streetcars. Many survivors developed serious diseases and four of them are suffering from multiple cancers. Four victims lost their parents and became orphans, and many were discriminated against.
(Research by KAMATA Nanao,
a professor emeritus at the University of Hiroshima
This chart shows where the 78 victims were when the bomb exploded.
img537

The Battle of Okinawa, codenamed Operation Iceberg,was fought on the Ryukyu Islands of Okinawa and was the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War of World War II.The 82-day-long battle lasted from early April until mid-June 1945. After a long campaign of island hopping, the Allies were approaching Japan, and planned to use Okinawa, a large island only 340 mi (550 km) away from mainland Japan, as a base for air operations on the planned invasion of Japanese mainland (coded Operation Downfall). Four divisions of the U.S. 10th Army (the 7th, 27th, 77th, and 96th) and two Marine Divisions (the 1st and 6th) fought on the island. Their invasion was supported by naval, amphibious, and tactical air forces.

The battle has been referred to as the "typhoon of steel" in English, and tetsu no ame ("rain of steel") or tetsu no bōfū ("violent wind of steel") in Japanese.The nicknames refer to the ferocity of the fighting, the intensity of kamikaze attacks from the Japanese defenders, and to the sheer numbers of Allied ships and armored vehicles that assaulted the island. The battle resulted in the highest number of casualties in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Based on Okinawan government sources, mainland Japan lost 77,166 soldiers, who were either killed or committed suicide, and the Allies suffered 14,009 deaths (with an estimated total of more than 65,000 casualties of all kinds). Simultaneously, 42,000-150,000 local civilians were killed or committed suicide, a significant proportion of the local population. The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki together with the Soviet invasion of Manchuria caused Japan to surrender less than two months after the end of the fighting on Okinawa.
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
 
Battle of Okinawa by Ted Tsukiyama

Student nurse recalls horror of Okinawa fighting

Compulsory Mass Suicide, the Battle of Okinawa, and Japan's Textbook Controversy Aniya Masaaki, The Okinawa Times, and Asahi Shinbun:
http://www.japanfocus.org/-Aniya-Masaaki/2629 
Peace Park shows devastation of Batttle of Okinawa by David Knickerbocker:
http://www.japanupdate.com/archive/index.php?id=974

このページのトップヘ