Protester: Some will be so brash to ask if we believe that all who hear Manson tomorrow night will go out and commit violent acts. The answer is "no." But does everybody who watches a Lexus ad go and buy a Lexus? No. But a few do.
Manson: I definitely can see why they would pick me, because I think it's easy to throw my face on a TV, because I'm, in the end, sort of a poster boy for fear. Because I represent what everyone's afraid of, because I do and say what I want.
Protester: If Marilyn Manson can walk into our town and promote hate, violence, suicide, death, drug use and Columbine-like behaviour, I can say, "Not without a fight, you can't."
Manson: The two by-products of that whole tragedy were, uh... violence in entertainment and gun control. And how perfect that that was the two things that we were gonna talk about with the upcoming election. And also, then we forgot about Monica Lewinsky and we forgot about... The president was shooting bombs overseas, yet I'm a bad guy because I sing some rock'n'roll songs. And who's a bigger influence, the president or Marilyn Manson? I'd like to think me, but I'm gonna go with the president.
Moore: Do you know the day that Columbine happened, the United States dropped more bombs on Kosovo than any other time during that war?
Manson: I do know that and I think that's really ironic, you know that, that nobody said, "Well, maybe the president had an influence on this violent behaviour. Because that's not the way the media wants to take it and spin it and turn it into fear. 'Cause then you're watching television, you're watching the news; you're being pumped full of fear. And there's floods, there's AIDS, there's murder. You cut to commercial, buy the Acura, buy the Colgate. If you have bad breath, they're not gonna talk to you. If you got pimples, the girl's not gonna fuck you. And it’s just this… it's a campaign of fear and consumption. And that's what I think that's it's all based on, is the whole idea that: keep everyone afraid, and they'll consume. And that's, that’s, really as simple as it can be boiled down to.
Moore: Right. If you were to talk directly to the kids at Columbine and the people in that community, what would you say to them, if they here right now?
Manson: I wouldn't say a single word to them. I would listen to what they have to say. And that's what no one did.
Moore: Yes, our children were indeed something to fear. They had turned into little monsters. But who was to blame? All the experts had an answer. “Angry, heavy-metal subculture.” “Where were the parents?” “Violent movies.” “South Park.” “Video games.” “Television.” “Entertainment.” “Satan.” “Cartoons.” “Films.” “Society.” “Toy guns.” “Drugs.” “Shock-rocker Marilyn Manson.” “Marilyn Manson.” “Marilyn Manson.” “Marilyn Manson.” “Marilyn Manson.”
Reporter: Marilyn Manson has cancelled the last five dates of his U.S, tour out of respect for those lost in Littleton. But the singer says artists like himself are not the ones to blame.
Official: This is perhaps the sickest group ever promoted by a mainstream record company.
Manson: I'm not a slave to a god that doesn't exist.
Moore: After Columbine, it seemed that the entire focus on why the shootings occurred was because the killers listened to Marilyn Manson. Two years after Columbine, Manson finally returned to Denver.
Reporter: The Oz Fest at Mile High Stadium brings shock-rocker Marilyn Manson to Denver tomorrow.
Moore: There were protests from the religious right. But I thought I'd go and talk with him myself.
Manson: When I was a kid growing up, music was the escape. That's the only thing that had no judgements. You know, you put on a record and it's not gonna yell at you for dressing the way you do. It's gonna make you feel better about it.
A Canadian: If guns were... If, if more guns made people safer, then America would be one of the safest countries in the world. It isn't. It's the opposite.
Moore: How many people are killed by guns each year? In Germany, 381. In France, 255. In Canada, 165. In the United Kingdom, 68. In Australia, 65. In Japan, 39. In the United States, 11127.
Professor Glassner: My favorite statistic in all the research I did discovered that the murder rate had gone down by 20 %. The coverage, that is how many murders are on the T… on the evening news, it went up by 600 %.
Prosecutor Bush: The American people are conditioned by network TV, by local news, to believe that their communities are much more dangerous than they actually are. For example, here, in this community, crime has decreased every year for the past eight years. Yet, gun ownership, particularly handgun ownership, is on the increase.
Professor Glassner: Crime rates have been dropping, dropping, dropping. Fear of crime has been going up, up, up. How can that be possible? It doesn't make any sense. And yet that makes perfect sense when you see what we're hearing from politicians and seeing in the news media.
Moore: Back in my hometown of Flint, Michigan, a six-year-old first-grade boy, at Buell Elementary, had found a gun at his uncle's house, where he was staying because his mother was being evicted. He brought the gun to school and shot another first-grader, six-year-old Kayla Rolland. With one bullet that passed through her body, she fell to the floor and laid there dying while her teacher called 911 for help. No one knew why the little boy wanted to shoot the little girl. As if the city had not been through enough horror and tragedy in the past two decades, it was now home to a new record: the youngest school shooting ever in the United States. On the morning of the shooting, it only took the news helicopters and satellite trucks a half-hour to show up on the scene.
Moore: Not far from where Charlton Heston and I grew up is a training ground for the Michigan Militia. The Michigan Militia became known around the world when, on April 19th, 1995, two guys living in Michigan who had attended Militia meetings, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, blew up the federal building in Oklahoma City, killing 168 people. The Michigan Militia wanted everyone to know that they were nothing like McVeigh and Nichols.
Michigan Militia Man: This is an American tradition. It's an American responsibility to be armed. If you're not armed, you're not responsible. Who's gonna defend your kids, the cops? The federal government? No, none of them. It's your job to defend you and yours. If you don't do it, you're in dereliction of duty, as an American. Period.
Michigan Militia Woman: I've had guns, um...pretty much since I was old enough to...to have them. And I learned how to use them, um...You're silly! Uh, because being a female, number one, I felt it was important to be able to protect myself with the best means possible. And one of those means is having a gun. When a criminal breaks into your house, who's the first person you're gonna call? Most people will call the police because they have guns. Cut off the middleman. Take care of your own family yourself. If you're not going to protect your family, who is?
James Nichols: I use the pen. 'Cause the pen is mightier than the sword. But you always must keep a sword handy, for when the pen fails. I sleep with a .44 Magnum under my pillow.
Moore: Come on. That's what everyone says. Is that true?
Nichols: It's true.
Moore: If we were to go…
Nichols: The whole world knows that.
Moore: If we were to go look under your pillow right now, would we see a .44 Magnum?
Moore: Honestly? Would you take us and show us? Right now? He took me into his bedroom, but told the cameraman to stay out. Sure enough, there was a .44 Magnum under his pillow. There it is. Okay. Is it loaded?
Nichols: Aye-yay-yay. No one has the right to tell me that I can't have it. That is protected on our constitution.
Heston: I have only five words for you: From my cold, dead hands.
Moore: Just ten days after the Columbine killings, despite the pleas of a community in mourning, Charlton Heston came to Denver and held a large pro-gun rally for the National Rifle Association.
Heston: Good morning. Thank you all for coming and thank you for supporting your organization. I also want to applaud your courage in coming here today. I have a message from the mayor, Mr. Wellington Webb, the mayor of Denver. He sent me this, and it says, "Don't come here. We don't want you here." I said to the mayor, "This is our country. As Americans we're free to travel wherever we want in our broad land." Don't come here? We're already here.
Daniel’s father: I am here today, because my son Daniel would want me to be here today. If my son Daniel was not one of the victims, he would be here with me today. Something is wrong in this country. When a child can grab a guns, grab a gun so easily, and shoot a bullet into the middle of a child's face, as my son experienced, something is wrong. But the time has come to come to understand that a Tech9 semi-automatic 30-bullet weapon like that that killed my son, is not used to kill deer. It has no useful purpose. It is time to address this problem.
Heston: We have work to do, hearts to heal, evil to defeat and a country to unite. We may have differences, yes, and we will again suffer tragedy almost beyond description. But when the sun sets on Denver tonight, and forever more, let it always set on we the people, secure in our land of the free and home of the brave. I, for one, plan to do my part. Thank you.
Dispatcher: Jefferson County 911.
Teacher: Yes, I'm a teacher at Columbine High School. There is a student here with a gun. He just shot out a window.
Dispatcher: Okay, has anybody been injured, ma’am?
Teacher: I don’t… Yes!
Teacher: Yes. And the school is in a panic, and I'm in the library. I've got students down. Under the tables, kids! Heads under the table! I saw a student outside! I was on hall duty…oh dear God. Okay, I was on hall duty, I saw a gun! I said, "What's going on out there?!" He turned the gun straight at us and he shot, and my God, the window went out. And the kid standing there with me, I think he got hit.
Dispatcher: We've got help on the way, ma'am.
Teacher: Oh God!
Dispatcher: Stay on line with me.
Teacher: Oh God!
Moore: When the shooting was over, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold had killed twelve students and one teacher. Dozens of others were wounded by the over 900 rounds of ammo that were fired. It is believed that the guns that they used were all legally purchased at stores and gun shows. And many of the bullets were bought at the Littleton K-Mart just down the street.
Reporter: Harris's diary also detailed ideas about hijacking an airplane and crashing it into New York City. Some may characterize that as fantasy...
Moore: In the end, they turned the guns on themselves.
Girl A: And then he came into the library, shot everybody around me, then put a gun to my head and asked if we all wanted to die and...
Girl B: We started hearing shots in the hall, and then they came in and they all told us to get under the desk and we all got under the desk and then they started coming in the library and opening fire...
Girl A: I just started screaming and crying and telling them not to shoot me. And so he shot the girl, he shot her in the head in front of me. Then he shot the black kid, because he was black.
Fennell: I, I think that the couple of things, Columbine did a couple of things. One is that it changed, it changed how we talk. That's the first thing. Because…
Moore: How's that?
Fennell: Well, for instance, if I say "Columbine," everybody knows what it means. I don't have to explain to you that Columbine..., er…
Moore: Is a what? What's wrong?
Fennell: Nothing’s wrong, just...
Moore: What's wrong?
Fennell: I... I just... sometimes Columbine bothers me. I'll be fine. Just a minute.
Moore: That's okay, that's okay.
Fennell: Um... There... there's something, something overwhelming about that kind of... viciousness, that kind of predatory action, that kind of indiscriminate, uh, killing.
(April 20, 1999)
(Largest one day bombing by U.S. in Kosovo War)
Reporter: Twenty-two NATO missiles fell on the village of Bogutovac near Kraljevo. Deadly cargo was dropped upon the residential part of the village.
President Clinton: We're striking hard at Serbia's machinery of repression, while making a deliberate effort to minimize harm to innocent people.
Reporter: On the hit list were a local hospital and primary school.
(One Hour Later)
President Clinton: We all know there has been a terrible shooting at a high school in Littleton, Colorado. I hope the American people will be praying for the students, the parents and the teachers. And, er, we'll wait for events to unfold and then there'll be more to say.
Belle : What a nice souvenir shop! Now, who do we need presents for?
Phil : Well, there's Bobby, of course.
Belle : Right. How about a toy ram? Isn't that one cute? The one with the ribbon.
Phil : That's a great idea. Let's get him a ram.
Belle : Now, what about Susan? She really wants a copy of that new bestseller Aging Emperors. Say, here's one in paperback.
Phil : Aging Emperors? She's been trying to get that book for weeks! Now, what about man's best friend?
Belle : You mean Rex? You want to get a present for the dog?
Phil : Certainly.
Belle : Well, how about a ball? These are just plastic, but I think he'd like one.
Phil : A ball. Yeah. And it's light. We have to think about carrying all this stuff.
Belle : Now, what about a souvenir for ourselves? Here's something they could send, and we wouldn't have to carry anything. Look. It says free sipping.
Phil : A case of the local wine. And free sipping? Let's go for it. I can't believe we're going to get something free. This whole tour has been really expensive.
Belle : Oh well, you only live once, as the saying goes.
Guide : Hello everyone, my name's Douglas and I'm going to be your guide for this morning's tour of the castle. I hope you'll find the tour really interesting, and I’ll be happy to try to answer any questions you may have. Our tour begins here at the main gate. The castle is surrounded on three sides by the winding River Brent, so the castle's strongest defenses were needed here, facing west. These walls are over four meters thick, and they've saved the castle on many occasions. Do you know, in all its seven-hundred-year history, the castle has only been captured once?
Phil : May I ask a question?
: Certainly sir, but why don't you tell us your
name first, and where you're from?
Phil : Oh, I'm Phil. I'm from New York. I was just wondering how the castle was captured that one time.
Guide : As a matter of fact, the attacking army dug a tunnel right under the river, and broke into the castle in the middle of the night.
Phil : Wow! Is the tunnel still there?
Guide : Yes it is, and you'll see part of it later in the tour. As you can see, we're now passing the guard-house, and on your left you can see the well, which provided water in times of attack. Still drinkable today. Our route takes us to the right here, however, and through this little gate into the famous Rose Garden. Legend has it that this where little Princess Isabella spent the lonely weeks and months waiting for news of her father the King. I think you'll agree that, on a fine summer's day like today, the sight and the fragrance of so many roses can be quite impressive. At the far end of the Rose Garden, you can see the new chapel. Well, we call it new. The old part of the castle was begun in 1379, but the original chapel was destroyed by fire a little over two centuries later. The new chapel dates from 1609. I think you can see from the superior quality of the stone and the wider windows that it belongs to a quite different period. When those windows catch the afternoon sun, it’s really golden and magical in there. The chapel also contains a number of historically important paintings, including a beautiful view of the castle as it was seen in 1713.
Belle : Say, what's that tower over there?
Guide : The tower?
Belle : Yes, it gives me the creeps.
Guide : How strange! That's the Grey Lady Tower. But before I tell you the story, can I ask you your name?
Belle : I'm Belle.
Guide : Thank you, Belle. That tower is said to be haunted by the angry ghost of a lady dressed all in grey. It seems that when Princess Isabella died…
Belle : Haunted? Oh, don't tell me anymore. I hate that kind of thing.
Phil : Well, I'd like to hear it. I think ghosts are fascinating. My brother saw one in the subway, you know.
Guide : A tragic story. But if some members of the tour might find it upsetting, perhaps I'd better save it for later. You can find out more in the Visitors' center and Souvenir Shop just over here.
Clerk : Good morning.
Phil : Good morning. We'd like to make a tour reservation.
Clerk: Yes, sir. Which tour did you have in mind?
Phil : The Pageant Tour of Brent Castle.
Clerk : The Pageant Tour of Brent Castle? Excuse me sir, but how did you hear of that tour?
Belle : Well, a friend gave us a pamphlet. Here it is. See. “Discover the romance of the age of chivalry on the Pageant Tout of Brent Castle.” We're especially interested in, the changing of the guard and the Shakespeare performances in the Grand Hall.
Phil : Yes, and I'd like to see the famous Chichester geese at the Isabella Pond. I'm something of a bird-watcher.
Clerk : I'm sorry to say that the pamphlet you have is somewhat out of date. The Pageant Tour hasn't been available for the past two years.
Phil : You mean we can't see the castle anymore?
Clerk : Oh no. There's still the regular Brent Castle Tour.
Belle : What does the regular tour feature?
Clerk : The towers, the Rose Garden, and several of the rooms preserved in their original state.
Phil : No changing of the guard?
Clerk : The guards were getting old, and they couldn't find anyone to replace them. Young people these days don't like the discipline, to say nothing of the uniforms.
Belle : Shakespeare performances?
Clerk : Instead, there's an Evening of Scottish Dancing in the Grand Hall you might enjoy.
Phil : I’ll pass that up. Surely we can see the Chichester geese, can’t we?
Clerk : Sorry, but a fox got to them two years ago.
Phil : All of them were killed?
Clerk : No, but the few remaining ones are kept away from the public. You can still see the Isabella Pond, however.
Phil : The poor geese!
Clerk : But you're in luck. Once a month, there's a special medieval meal offered in the castle's banquet room. Today's that special day.
Belle : Oh, good! Let's try it, Phil.
Phil : All right. If you really want to. I just hope they aren't serving geese for supper.
Joe : Professor Shelby, I have a question.
Shelby : Go ahead, Joe ....
Joe : You mentioned the attitude of earlier anthropologists that these beliefs are just wrong, a primitive superstition.
Shelby : Yes.
Joe : Well, my question is: weren't those early anthropologists right? Surely, none of us believe in magic, do we?
Shelby : That's a good question. What do the rest of you think about that?
Rumiko : I think a lot of people do believe in magic. How many people think its bad luck to break a mirror? How many people go to fortune-tellers for advice about the future? I have a Scottish friend who carries a rabbit's foot around with him everywhere he goes ....
Joe : That's not the same, Rumiko. People who do those things just do it as a joke.
Rumiko : I don't agree. Some people are pretty serious about these things.
Joe : A small minority, maybe. But it's not widespread, is it? It's not the basis of our society.
Shelby : Well, for the sake of argument, suppose we agree with Joe that the Azande beliefs of that time were mistaken. What follows from that?
Joe : It shows that their whole way of life was totally different from ours.
Rumiko : So you think we have nothing to learn from them?
Joe : Well, do you want us to start poisoning chickens?
Shelby : Our job is to understand how other societies work or worked at a particular time. We might adopt some idea from a given culture, or we might not. But our first task is to understand what the idea really is. Joe, do you think that if their beliefs are wrong, they're not worth studying?
Joe : Well, they'd be more interesting if they were right, wouldn't they?
Rumiko : Not at all. It's more interesting to see how their beliefs can make sense to them, even if they are wrong.
Shelby : Don, you have a question ... .
Don : Yes. Surely we can study the same thing for very different reasons. Joe thinks we should study something to improve our own way of doing things. Rumiko wants to understand the way they think. Professor Shelby wants to explain what holds their society together and makes it work. Why can't we say that these are all good reasons?
Shelby : That's an interesting point, Don.
Don : And I have a related question about this.
Shelby : Go ahead ....
Don : I'm curious about Evans-Pritchard himself. What was his motive for studying the Azande?
Shelby : Well, motives are often complicated. Also his attitude changed over time. In the 1930s, he seems to have seen himself as a scientist, objectively collecting solid facts. By the 1950s, however, he decided that anthropology is not a science, but a matter of translating between two very different ways of thinking.
Don : Did Evans-Pritchard think of his work as pure research—knowledge for its own sake—or did he think it would have some useful practical result?
Shelby : It’s hard to be sure, but it’s not impossible that he hoped for some concrete benefits in the real world.
Don : I see, thank you.
Shelby : Well, time’s up, I’m afraid. Thanks for your questions. Next week we’ll be looking at African concepts of the family.
The resulting book, published in 1937, has become a classic of anthropology, and it is still widely read today. Evans-Pritchard carefully describes the various forms of magic used by the Azande. Though he clearly does not accept these beliefs himself, he is able to see that they have a useful and constructive role in Azande society. Evans-Pritchard does not dismiss these beliefs as foolish or irrational, as anthropologists of an earlier generation might have done.
According to Azande belief, some people witches have special magical power. They are able to use this power at night, to harm others, for example, to strike a nearby rival with anything from minor illness to death. According to Evans-Pritchard, the Azande saw witchcraft as an inherited spiritual power, passed from father to son, or from mother to daughter. It could not be taught, and in fact, it might remain unused throughout the witch's whole life. It could also operate without the witch's knowledge or consent.
Now, how do you know when witchcraft is being used? If someone is using witchcraft against you, how do you discover who it is? For this purpose, the Azande used a kind of test which Evans-Pritchard called an oracle. The most reliable kind of oracle was the chicken oracle, and indeed, chickens were kept mostly for this purpose. Suppose your wife is ill, and you suspect that a neighbour, jealous of her good looks, is using magic to make her unwell. You give a special substance a kind of poison to a chicken, saying, ‘If my neighbour is responsible for my wife's illness, let this chicken die'. If the chicken dies, your suspicions are confirmed.
You might think that this would create anger and resentment between members of Azande society. However, full confirmation of the oracle's message was expensive and depended on using only the very best chickens, which belonged to the Prince. Also, people believed that an oracle might give the wrong result because someone was using magic to influence it. So even in Evans-Pritchard's time, it was rare for people who were thought to be witches, to be punished in any serious way. Instead, people politely asked the witch who after all might not be aware of the problem to control his or her magic. In this way, the Azande beliefs in magic did not, in practice, seriously damage relations between neighbours. 'Evans-Pritchard had the insight to realise that these beliefs about magic helped Azande society to function smoothly and well.
Walking, in my opinion, is one of life's great pleasures: when we walk, we not only use our bodies in a healthy, enjoyable way, but also have time to observe both our own thoughts and the details of our surroundings in a way that is hardly possible if we are driving a car at forty miles an hour rather than walking at three miles an hour. Nowadays in the United States, however, walking is very much under threat from our car-centered culture.
There was in fact a sort of golden age of walking that began in the late eighteenth century and reached a peak around the turn of the twentieth century, when walking was a common recreation, walking clubs were flourishing, and North Americans and Europeans were as likely to make a date for a walk as for a drink or a meal. By that time the nineteenth-century introduction of sidewalks and the creation of green city parks, such as New York's Central Park, which was completed in 1873, had made cities good places to walk. In addition, rural developments such as national parks were in first bloom.
Perhaps 1970, when the U.S. Census showed that the majority of Americans were for the first time in the history of any nation—suburban, marks the end of this golden age. Suburbanization has radically changed the nature of everyday life, and ordinary Americans now perceive, value, and use time, space, and their own bodies in very different ways than they did before. Walking still covers the short distances between parking lots and buildings, but walking as a cultural activity, as a pleasure, as travel, as a way of getting around, is fading.
American suburbs are built to be traveled around in by car; people are no longer expected to walk, and they seldom do. There are many reasons for this. Suburbs generally are not exciting places to walk, and the experience of moving through them can become very dull indeed at three miles an hour instead of forty or sixty. Moreover, many suburbs were designed with curving streets that vastly expand distances; sometimes, in order to reach a destination only a quarter of a mile away, the traveler must walk or drive more than a mile. Also, although suburbs are generally safe, since walking is not an ordinary activity, a lone walker may feel ill at ease about doing something unexpected and unusual.
Walking is thus an ineffective means of transportation in the suburbs, but the suburbanization of the American mind has made walking increasingly rare even in places where it is a good way of getting around. San Francisco, where I live, is very much that kind of "walking city," yet even there people routinely drive distances that could be covered more quickly on foot. For example, once I made my friend Maria who is a surfer, an athlete, and a world traveler—walk for about ten minutes from her house to a restaurant on Sixteenth Street, and she was surprised and pleased to realize how close it was, for it had never occurred to her before that it was accessible on foot. People have a clear sense of how far they are willing to walk; urban planners generally suppose that it is around a quarter of a mile, the distance that can be walked in about five minutes, but in fact it seems to have shrunk until now it is no more than the fifty yards or so from car to building.