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October 2010

BBC Newsで英語の表現法を学ぶ。(9) ブラジルで大油田発見


30 October 2010 Last updated at 17:34 GMT


Brazil finds massive oil field

A newly-tapped oil field off the coast of Brazil could contain up to 15 billion barrels of oil, officials say.

l         tap: draw a liquid from something

Brazil's national petroleum agency said the Libra field most probably held around 8 billion barrels. That matches the size of the giant Tupi oil field, whose discovery in 2007 drew attention to Brazil's potential as a major oil producer.

If the 15 billion barrel figure were confirmed it would double Brazil's known oil reserves. It would also be the biggest oil field discovered in the Americas since 1976, when Mexico found the giant Cantarell field in the Gulf of Mexico.

l         match, doubleの使い方覚えておくと便利。

l         the Americas: 南北両アメリカ大陸


The Libra exploratory well is located 183km (114 miles) offshore from Rio de

Janeiro. "The volume of recoverable oil belonging to the nation could vary from 3.7 billion to 15 billion barrels, with the most likely estimate being 7.9 billion barrels," the national petroleum agency (ANP) said in a statement.

Brazil has discovered billions of barrels of oil in the last few years, mostly in deep, pre salt fields off its south-eastern coast.

l         exploratory: for the purpose of finding something

l         pre salt fields: プレサルト層 (深い地層)

The discoveries should make Brazil one of the world's top 10 oil producers.

Outgoing President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva has said future oil revenues will be used to eradicate poverty and invest in education and technology.
In September the Brazilian oil company Petrobras, which is partly owned by the state, raised $70bn (£44.7bn) to develop the new fields in the world's largest ever public share offering.

l         outgoing president: まもなく任期を終える大統領;incoming president: まもなく就任する新大統領

l         eradicate poverty: destroy poverty completely; put an end to poverty

l         raise: manage to obtain; bring or collect something together

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BBC Newsで英語の表現法を学ぶ (8)2-2 中国漁船警備艇尖閣諸島接近に抗議(1-2の続き)

BBC News ASIA-PACIFIC 25 October 2010 Last updated at 06:10 GMT (1-2の続き)


Japan and China have been locked in their worst dispute for years over the territorial issue. It began when a Chinese trawler captain was arrested near the islands by Japan's coastguard in early September after colliding with two Japanese patrol boats. The row has sparked nationalist protests in both countries.

l         have been locked in their worst dispute for years: ここ数年来では最悪の紛争になってしまって動きが取れなくなった

l         spark: ニュースでよく使われるtriggerに置き換えてもいい。

On Sunday, about 200 people took part in anti-Japanese protests in Lanzhou in northwest China, a day after a similar protest in Deyang in the southwest.

In Japan, 300 anti-China protesters rallied in Takamatsu city on Saturday.

l         take part in: participate in

Meanwhile Japan has urged China to normalise customs inspections of exports of

rare earths, used to make everything from wind turbines to hybrid cars.

Japanese trading houses have complained shipments have been disrupted since the row began. China, which has a near monopoly on rare earths, has insisted there is no embargo in place.

l         normalise: make something regular in pattern or as expected; (cause something to) become normally friendly again after a period of dispute

l         disrupt: cause disorder in something

l         embargo: official order that forbids something, especially trade, the movement of ships, etc. ; there is no embargo in place: (出荷)禁止処置は取っていない(存在しない)

In placeはそういう状態にある事を指す言い方

BBC Newsのアナウンサーになったつもりで音読し、英文を書き写して見ましょう。これを繰り返せは自分でも美しい文を書くことが出来たり、きれいな英語が話せるようになります。

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BBC Newsで英語の表現法を学ぶ。(8)1-2 中国漁船警備艇の尖閣諸島接近に抗議

BBC News ASIA-PACIFIC 25 October 2010 Last updated at 06:10 GMT



Japan protests over Chinese boats near disputed islands Japan's government has made a formal protest to Beijing after two Chinese fisheries patrol boats were seen near a disputed island chain.

l         make a formal protest to: ~に対して正式に抗議する。

l         a disputed island chain: 紛争となっている諸島

Relations between Asia's two biggest economies have been tense since a Chinese trawler captain was arrested by Japan's coastguard in the same area in early September.

The Chinese boats were spotted by the coastguard late on Sunday.

Protests over the territorial row took place in both countries at the weekend.

The islands in the East China Sea, known in Japan as Senkaku and in China as Diaoyu, are controlled by Japan, but claimed by China.

l         Asia’s two biggest economies: 日本と中国のこと

l         have been tense: 緊張が続いている

l         were spotted: 発見された; spot: catch the sight of, recognize, discover

l         row: noisy or violent argument

l         controlled by Japan, but claimed by China: 日本により実効支配されているが、中国により領有権が主張されている。claim: demand or request something because it is or one believes it is one’s right or one’s property. * 英語のclaim と complaint との意味の違いに注意。Complaint は日本語の「苦情」に当たりますが、claimは所有権を主張したり、物的補償を求める(保険金の請求等の場合)場合に使われます。

They are uninhabited, but surrounded by rich fishing grounds and potentially significant oil and gas reserves. "Last night around 9pm (1200 GMT) our coastguard sighted them and afterwards the two (Chinese ships) left there and sailed north toward China," top Japanese government spokesman Yoshito Sengoku said. "After the incident we launched a protest through diplomatic channels."

l         potentially: have possibility of being developed. ;potentially significant oil and gas reserves: かなりの開発可能な石油とガスの埋蔵

l         launch: put something into action

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BBC News で英語の表現法を学ぶ (7) シエスタ(昼寝)コンテスト


23 October 2010 Last updated at 21:14 GMT


Ecuadorean super-snorer wins siesta contest in Spain

A jobless security worker has won a competition billed as Spain's inaugural siesta championship, napping for 17 minutes in a busy shopping centre.

l         Ecuadorean: citizen of Ecuador

l         Siesta: (Spanish) midday or afternoon nap

l         bill: announce or advertise; win a competition billed as: ~と銘打ったコンテストで勝利する

l         inaugural: of beginning 初めて開催された


Ecuadorean Pedro Soria Lopez took first place and 1,000 euros (£890) for his efforts - or lack of them. Judges praised the 62-year-old not only for the duration of his 40 winks, but also for his volume, notching up snores of 70 decibels - around talking level.

l         for his efforts – or lack of them: 彼の努力、いや無努力に対して。(居眠りコンテストなので「努力することでもないかな」とちょっと皮肉な言い方。

l         forty winks: short sleep, especially, during day time うたた寝。to have/take forty winks うたた寝をする

l         notch (something) up: score something; achieve something



The contest was run by Spain's National Association of Friends of the Siesta.

It was part of a campaign to revive the Spanish power-napping tradition, which is seen as threatened by the fast pace of modern life.

l         to revive the Spanish power-napping tradition which is seen as threatened by the fast pace of modern life: ともすれば現代生活の速いペースの脅威にさらされおろそかになりつつあるスペインの力のもとシエスタの伝統に再び活気を与えるために


Over the course of nine days, 360 competitors were challenged to sleep for as much of a 20-minute period allotted to them as possible.

Participants stretched out on sofas in the Madrid shopping centre while their pulses were monitored to check they were asleep.

l         over the course of nine days: 9日間の間に

l         be challenged to: ~にチャレンジする。日本語で「チャレンジする」をよく使うが英語の場合は受動態となることに注意。

l         allot: give; provide

l         their pulses were monitored: 脈拍が測定された


Judges awarded points for the speed with which participants fell asleep, the volume of their snoring, the most original sleeping position and the best-dressed sleeper.

l         the most original sleeping position: もっともユニークな寝相

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BBC Newsで英語の表現法を学ぶ (6)2-2 猛烈台風メギ(台風13号)


'Preparing for war'

The northern provinces of Cagayan and Isabela are on the highest storm alert. One man in Cagayan was reported missing after he fell into the fast-flowing Buntun river. The man was named as Vicente Decena, a candidate in next week's local elections.

l         reported missing: 災害で行方不明者のニュースにいつも使われる表現

Officials have warned that the heavy rain and high winds could damage buildings, power supplies and agriculture. Emergency services have been stocking up on food and medicines, says the BBC's Kate McGeown in the capital, Manila.

Government forecasters say waves off the east coast could be greater than 14m (46ft). Sea travel has been banned. The coast guard has been instructed to forbid all fishing vessels from setting out to sea in the north, says the AFP news agency.


l         Power supplies: 電力の供給。Power failure: 停電

l         stock up: keep (goods) in stock; keep a supply

l         off the east coast: 東海岸沖で

l         forbid all fishing vessels from setting out to sea….: すべての漁船の出港を禁じる

Thousands of soldiers and officers are on standby to deliver aid and rescue people stranded by the floods. Trucks, rescue boats and food packs have been pre-positioned near vulnerable areas, said Benito Ramos, a senior disaster-response official.

"This is like preparing for war," he told the Associated Press. "We know the past lessons and we're aiming for zero casualties."  Schools in the north were closed on Monday. Farmers were urged to harvest as many of their crops as possible before the typhoon hit, our correspondent says. The area in the storm's path is one of the country's main rice-growing regions.

l        on standby: スタンドバイ体制で(出動準備態勢)

l        stramd: adj. left in difficulties

l        vulnerable: that can be hurt or exposed to danger or attack

l        aiming for zero casualties: 無被害を目指して

l        urge: try earnestly or persistently to persuade

l        one of the country’s main rice-growing regions: 国の主要米穀栽培地方のひとつ


In July, President Benigno Aquino sacked the head of the weather bureau after he failed to predict a typhoon which unexpectedly changed course and hit Manila, killing more than 100 people. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center of the US Navy says Megi is expected to weaken to typhoon intensity as it crosses the Cordillera mountain range. However, it will then re-emerge into the South China Sea and re-intensify as it heads for southern China.

l         sack: dismiss somebody from a job; fire.


l         Megi is expected to weaken to typhoon intensity: Super-typhoonが普通のtyphoon並の勢力になる見込み

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BBC Newsで英語の表現法を学ぶ(6)1-2 猛烈台風メギ(13号)


18 October 2010 Last updated at 04:46 GMT



Super-Typhoon Megi hits northern Philippines

Super-Typhoon Megi has made landfall in the northern Philippines, lashing the area with heavy rains and winds of more than 225km/h (140mph).

l         landfall: n. first sight or approach to land after a journey by sea.; make landfall:陸地に接近する。

l        lash: strike somebody/something with a whip or as with a whip

Thousands of people in the path of the storm have fled their homes, emergency services are on high alert and schools have been closed in many areas. It is the strongest storm the Philippines has faced for four years. In 2006, a storm with winds of 155km/h triggered mudslides, burying villages and killing about 1,000 people.

l         path of the storm: 台風の進路

l         emergency service: 対策本部

l         alert: watchful or prepared; on high alert: 厳重な警戒態勢下

l         face: 台風に遭遇する意味でfaceが使われていることに注目

l         trigger: ピストルなどの引き金を引くからひとつに事がいろいろなことを引き起こす意味。




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フランス語でチリ鉱山救出ニュースを読んでみましょう Le Monde 紙 より

Le Monde

LEMONDE.FR avec Reuters, A FP et AP | 13.10.10 | 08h06 • Mis à jour le 13.10.10 | 22h13


Les opérations de secours se poursuivent au Chili

A genoux pour prier ou le poing levé en signe de victoire, les mineurs bloqués depuis plus de deux mois au Chili retrouvaient un à un la lumière mercredi 13 octobre, accueillis en héros par leur famille et le monde entier, fasciné par un sauvetage sans accroc. Les autorités, qui tablaient jusqu'ici sur un délai de trente-six à quarante-huit heures, pensaient pouvoir boucler dans la journée l'opération, commencée peu après minuit, heure locale. Vingt et un des 33 mineurs étaient déjà remontés à la surface à 22 heures, heure de Paris.

フランス ル・モンド紙 の報じるチリ鉱山救出活動ニュース。21名まで救出された段階の報道である。

l          à genoux : les genoux sur le sol 跪いて

l          poing : main fermée ; le poing levé en signe de victore : 勝利のサインのガッツポーズ

l          un à un : pas plus d’un à la fois 一人ずつ

l          sauvetage : action de soustraire qqn, qqch à ce qui le manace

l          accroc : incident malheureux ; un sauvetage sans accroc : つつがなく進んだ救助活動

l          tablaient – tabler : fonder ses calculs sur ; comter sur

l          boucler : serrer ; terminer


La remontée par un puits d'évacuation foré en trente-trois jours prend une quinzaine de minutes mais, avec la préparation de chaque voyage, il faut une heure environ par mineur pour achever l'opération. Les secours ont réduit le cycle de sortie de chaque mineur à environ quarante-cinq minutes au fil de la journée, a précisé René Aguilar, ingénieur en charge des secours. Chacun d'eux est remonté à bord d'une nacelle baptisée Fenix, en référence à la renaissance des mineurs.

l          puits : trou creusé dans le sol en vue d’extraire du charbon ou un minerai

l          foré – forer : creuser dan une matière dure :

l          achever : finir ; terminer

l          une nacelle baptisée Fenix : フェニックスと名づけれたカプセル

l          en référence à la renaissance des mineurs :鉱山夫の復活にちなんで


Premier à être arrivé à la surface, portant des lunettes aux verres extrêmement sombres pour préserver ses yeux, Florencio Avalos a été enlacé et embrassé par ses proches après avoir parcouru les 622 mètres de la remontée. Il a donné une accolade à la première dame du Chili, Cecilia Morel, et au président Sebastian Pinera, qui a salué une opération "sans comparaison dans l'histoire de l'humanité".

l          enlacer : serrer contre soi en entourant de ses bras, 英語のhugに当たる

l          embrasser : prendre, serrer qqn, qqch, dans ses bras 英語のembraceに当たる

このほかにaccoladeの動詞に当たるaccolerが上の2語に近い意味である。 3語の間には少しずつ意味の違いがあるようである。

l          sans comparaison dans l’histoire de l’humanité : 人類史上これまでにない〔救出作業〕

l          saluer : rendre homage ; recnnaitre en tant que tel


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BBC News スペイン語版 チリ鉱山救出作戦 2-2

BBC Mundo ltima actualización: Sábado, 9 de octubre de 2010

Chile: el taladro llegó hasta los mineros

Rodrigo Bustamante Mina San José, Chile


Sin fecha para el rescate

El ministro de Salud, Jaime Mañalich, dijo a primera hora del viernes que el próximo martes 12 de octubre era el "Día D" en que empezarían las labores para sacar a los 32 trabajadores chilenos y uno boliviano.

Sin embargo, posteriormente aclaró que lo que había querido decir era que desde la noche del lunes estará todo "completamente preparado" para que el rescate se realice en cualquier momento.

l         el Dia D: もともと戦争用語で事前に計画していた攻撃を実行する日(普通は日にちが明らかにされない)

l        aclarar: volver claro

De visita en la mina San José, la primera dama Cecilia Morel aseguró que "las fechas exactas no se saben" y pidió que no se les dé importancia a rumores, porque generan un "ambiente tenso" en las familias.

"El único mensaje del presidente (Sebastián Piñera) es y ha sido siempre que por sobre todo está la seguridad, y que los puedan sacar lo antes posible teniendo como prioridad total la seguridad. Ese es el único plazo y no hay otro", dijo a los micrófonos de BBC Mundo.

Una vez que se concretó el anhelado "rompimiento" en el taller, se estima que el izamiento de los mineros "se iniciaría dentro de 3 a 8 días, dependiendo de las decisiones que se tomen", afirmó el ministro Golborne.

l         la primera dama: 大統領夫人

l         plazo: 期限、実行される日

l         rompimiento: quiebra o abertura en un cuerpo solido

l         izamiento: izarが動詞でlevantar las velos, bandera


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BBC News スペイン語版 チリの鉱山救出作戦 1-2


BBC Mundo ltima actualización: Sábado, 9 de octubre de 2010

Chile: el taladro llegó hasta los mineros

Rodrigo Bustamante Mina San José, Chile

A las 08:02 horas (12:02 GMT) de este sábado se produjo la noticia que tanto se esperaba en la mina San José: la máquina T-130 alcanzó con diámetro definitivo el taller desde donde serán rescatados los 33 trabajadores que permanecen enterrados a 700 metros de profundidad desde el 5 de agosto. Una sirena y fuertes ruidos de bocina anunciaron que el llamado "Plan B" había logrado romper las últimas rocas para dar con el lugar ubicado a 678 metros.

l         Taladro: instrumento con que se taladra or agujerea una cosa

l         Producirse: explicatse; manifestarse

l         Permanecer: mantenerse

l         Enterar: poner debajo de tierra

l         Bocina: aparato para avisar

l         Ubicar: encontrarse en cierto lugar

De esta forma está completamente perforado el túnel de unos 66 centímetros por el que se deslizará una cápsula que devolverá a los mineros a la superficie. La máquina de la empresa Geotec llegó el 3 de septiembre a la mina ubicada en las cercanías de Copiapó, a unos 800 kilómetros al norte de Santiago, y 14 días después alcanzó el taller con un diámetro inicial de 13 centímetros que debía ser


l         Dislizarse: caer en una flaueza

l         Devolver : volver una cosa

l        Taller: lugar en el que trabajan obreros, artistas, etc.

La algarabía fue total entre los familiares de los mineros, que ahora esperan por una última decisión de las autoridades para saber cuándo empezará el anhelado rescate. Los expertos analizarán el ducto con una cámara y luego de ello determinarán si será necesario reforzarlo con tubos para evitar posibles derrumbes. "Vamos a tomar la decisión cuando tengamos el máximo de información", había explicado con antelación el ministro de Minería, Laurence Golborne.

l         Algarabia: 「騒ぎ声」のいみだが、もともとは「レコンキスタ時代にキリスト教徒がアラビア語につけた名称。意味が分からず騒ぎ声にしか聞こえなかったのだろう。

l         Anhelar: ansiar una cosa; el anhelado rescate: 待ち望んだ救助

l         Derrumbe: derrubamiento 落盤

l        Antelacion: anticipacion
                                 (a continuacion 続く)

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BBC Newsで英語の表現法を学ぶ(5)チリの鉱山救出作戦


文章を味わいながら何回も読んで、あとは見ないで自分で同じ内容のものを書いて見ましょう(reproduction 作業の勉強用です。)

BBC NEWS - LATIN AMERICA & CARIBBEAN 9 October 2010 Last updated at 12:19 GMT

Breakthrough in Chile mine rescue

Rescuers have drilled through to the underground chamber where 33 Chilean miners have been trapped since August.

The breakthrough at the San Jose mine came shortly after 0800 local time (1200GMT), sparking celebrations.  It means efforts to remove the miners through the tunnel should begin within days. The men were trapped when part of the mine collapsed on 5 August - their 65-day ordeal is the longest suffered by a group of miners caught underground.

l         drilled through: 「掘っていた穴が貫通した」という感じがよく出ている表現。

l         breakthrough: important development or discovery, especially in science; 動詞にcomeを使っている

l         spark: give out sparks

l        ordeal: difficult or painful experience

They have been living in a shelter 700m (2,300ft) underground. However, the Plan B drill - the second of three which have been working simultaneously - has penetrated 624m to a workshop which can be reached by the miners. Officials say they still need to determine whether the miners can be winched up through the exposed rock, or if they will have to wait for the shaft to be encased with steel piping. Huge cranes have been brought in to lower the metal casing if it is needed.

Chile's Mining Minister Laurence Golborne has warned that it will be three to eight days before the rescue mission can begin. Officials say everything needed for the rescue is now in place.

l         workshop: room or building in which machines, etc. are made or repaired; ここではworkshop本来の意味「作業場」

l        It will be ~ days before ….: ,,,するのに~日かかる

'Huge relief'

Relatives of the miners, many of whom have been camping near the mine since the collapse, milled around in excitement at the news. Sirens wailed in celebration. Alicia Campos, the mother of trapped miner Daniel Herrera, said she was "very happy".

"I have a huge sense of relief because I feel I'll see my son soon," she told the BBC.

l         Mill around: (of people or animal) move round and round in a confused mass.

l         have a huge sense of relief: 「本当にほっとしてます」

It has been a long wait for the families, says the BBC's Tim Willcox at the scene. For weeks they have been anxiously awaiting any snippet of news, and grabbing short opportunities to speak to their loved ones by phone. Many families waited up all night in expectation of the break through, our correspondent says.

When the rescue operation begins, a medic will be sent down the shaft initially, in a special capsule, to assess the miners. Then it is expected to take an hour to winch each man to safety.

l         snippet: small piece or item (of information, news, etc.)

l         assess: の順番で救出するか「査定する」

l         winch ~to safety: 安全な場所まで引き上げる

The men are expected to be split into three groups. Some who are fit and have the most technical know-how will be chosen to go first - in case something goes wrong. Then the weakest are expected to be brought to the surface. A final group, including some of the strongest miners, will wait till last.

l         In case something goes wrong: 不慮の事態に備えて

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BBC Newsで英語の表現方法を学ぶ(4)リチュウム電池と貨物航空機の火災


8 October 2010 Last updated at 20:52 GMT

FAA cites fire risk in bulk lithium battery shipments

The US airline regulator has warned carriers shipments of lithium batteries may ignite if exposed to high heat in flight, risking a "catastrophic event".

航空貨物便に搭載されるリチュウム電池は飛行中高温に(exposed to)さらされる火災発生の危険性があると連邦航空局が警告したというニュースです

l         Fire riskriskは名詞で後のrisking(risk)は動詞として使われています。日本語でもカタカナ言葉で「リスク」が使われますが、特に動詞の後の語とのつながりに注意しましょう。

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) said the batteries, widely used in consumer products, could ignite in a fire, overwhelming suppression systems.

The FAA said a US cargo flight that crashed last month near Dubai carried a shipment of lithium batteries.

l         Ignite: cause something to catch fire; could ignite in a fire: 発火して火災になる可能性あり

l         Overwhelm: overpower something

l         a shipment of …:航空機に搭載してもしばしばshipmentが使われます。

The warning did not apply to batteries carried by passengers, the FAA said. "Common metal shipping containers, pails and drums, are not designed to withstand a lithium metal cell fire," the agency warned in a statement, adding no containers have been tested or approved to mitigate the risk.

l         The warning did not apply to: この警告は~には適用されなかった。乗客の携帯する商品に使われている程度のものにまで言及していないこと。

l         Withstand: resist ;are not designed to withstand: (火災)を防ぐような仕様にはなっていない。

l         Mitigate: make something less severe, violent, or painful; moderate

Bulk shipments of the batteries are already banned from passenger aircraft, the agency said. The agency said a United Parcel Service flight that crashed near Dubai last month was carrying large quantities of lithium batteries.

l         are already banned from passenger aircraft: fromを使っていることに注目。旅客便に(搭載することは)すでに禁止されている。ご存知の通り旅客便の航空機では床下に貨物が搭載される。

"Investigation of the crash is still underway, and the cause of the crash has not been determined," the agency said. "We... believe it prudent to advise operators of that fact." Dozens of incidents have been recorded in which lithium batteries ignited in flight,

but it remains unknown what caused the fires.

l         Is still underway: 未だ継続中である。

l         determine: fix something precisely; find out (something that is not known)

l         prudent:: acting with or showing care and foresight; showing good judgement

l         incident: incidentと似た意味でaccidentがあるが、incidentのほうが大事に至らなかったaccidentより軽い出来事をいう。

l         it remains unknown: 未だにはっきりしていない。

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BBC NEWSで英語の表現方法を学ぶ(3)。 フランスのベール着用禁止法

BBC News EUROPE7 October 2010 Last updated at 16:42 GMT

French veil ban clears last legal hurdle

France's constitutional court has approved the law set to ban wearing the Islamic full veil in public.


It approved it almost in its entirety, making one small change: the law will not apply to public places of worship where it may violate religious freedom. The proposed measure had already been passed by parliament. It is due to come into force next spring.

The ban has strong public support, but critics point out that only a handful of French Muslims wear the full veil.

l         Entirety: completeness in its entirety: in its entirety:完全な状態で

l         Make one small change: ひとつだけ修正して

l         Passapprove (a bill, law, proposal, etc.) by voting

l         It is due to come into force: 発効する予定である。

l         A handful of: small number ofhandful: as much as or as many as can be held in one hand 片手でもてるほどの

The law makes it illegal to wear garments such as the niqab or burka, which incorporate a full-face veil, anywhere in public.

Under the ban, persons found wearing a full veil in public will face a fine of 150 euros (£130) and/or a citizenship course.

Those found to force women to wear a full veil will face a 30,000-euro fine and a one-year jail term.

l         Niqab or burka: 回教徒のベールで主なものは7種類(Hajab, Niqab, Burka, Al-Amira, Syayla, Khimar, Chador)あるが、そのうちこの2種だけが目以外はすべて覆われる。

l         Face a fine of: ~の罰金が科せられる。払う羽目になる。

l         And/or : A and/or BAB両方かどちらか片方

l         Citizen course: French citizenship course: a course to inform or remind them of the value of the French republic. The course is aimed at helping women wearing the full veil understand the reason behind the ban フランス国民としての自覚教育


A last challenge is possible at the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, where decisions are binding.

Under the law, there is a six-month period of "education" to explain to women already wearing a face veil that they face arrest and a fine if they continue to do so in public spaces.  There are estimated to be only about 2,000 women wearing the full veil in France.  President Nicolas Sarkozy has backed the ban as part of a wider debate on French identity, but opponents say the government is pandering to far-right voters.

l         a last challenge: 一つ残された最後の異議申し立てのチャンス

l         bind: imposing a legal obligation

l         Under the law: この法律の下では

l         There are estimated to be…フランスの回教徒は600万人、国民の8%に当たる。  そのうちブルカやニカブを着用しているのは2000人ぐらいとされる。

l         French identity: フランス人の独自性、フランス人らしさ

l         Pander: try to satisfy (a vulgar, week or immoral desire or somebody having this)


Spain and Belgium are debating similar legislation.

l         スペインとベルギーでも同じような立法が討論されている。

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BBCの英語ニュースで表現方法を学ぶ (2):タリバンがアフガニスタン政府に接触

Taliban contact with Afghan government 'intensifying'

l                   Intensify: become more intense or intensive

l                   Intensive: concentrating all one’s effort on a specific area


Contact between the Taliban and the government in Afghanistan is intensifying, a senior Afghan official has told the BBC.


Waheed Omar, a spokesman for President Hamid Karzai, said there was a willingness within some levels of the Taliban to find a way of seeking peace. But he said the contact did not amount to negotiations to end the conflict.

l         amount to: become successful; make progress 紛争を終わらせるための交渉に入るなるまでには到っていない。 amount の使い方に注目。

The Taliban, which has always insisted foreign troops must leave the country, denied such talks were taking place.

Mr Omar said contact had intensified since a "peace jirga" in June, where Afghan tribal leaders endorsed Mr Karzai's plans to offer an amnesty and employment incentives to militants to persuade them to give up arms.

l         Jirga 種族の長老会議
l         Amnesty: general pardon especially, for offences against the State


He said there had been "signs and signals" and attempts by the Taliban to contact the Afghan government, sometimes through intermediaries. But he said there were no "comprehensive negotiations, nobody sitting at a negotiating table to discuss anything". The government was also "not in a position to say who is representing who, or how much authority these people are carrying", he said.

l         signs and signals: 同じ「しるし」でもsignalは意図的に発するもの、signは発見されるものというニュアンスが含まれます。


l         intermediary: person who acts as a means of communication between two or more others  仲介者。                                       


Mr Omar said he believed the Taliban were feeling pressure from within Afghanistan to seek peace and that he was hopeful peace could be achieved.

His comments came in response to a report in The Washington Post on Wednesday.It suggested for the first time secret, high level talks had begun between Kabul and representatives of the Taliban authorised to speak on behalf of the so-called Quetta Shura - the Taliban leadership council believed to be based in Pakistan.The report quoted a source close to the talks as saying that despite their resilience in the conflict, the Taliban leadership believe "they are not in a winning position".

l         His comment came in response to Washington Post: 彼のコメントはワシントン・ポスト紙報道内容に応える形でなされた。

The Taliban were "very, very serious about finding a way out", said the unnamed source. A spokesman for the Taliban denied that any such talks were taking place.  The organisation has previously said it will not enter into any negotiations with the Afghan government unless all foreign troops are withdrawn from the country.

l         a way out: 解決策。 To find a way out 解決策を見つける。 覚えておくと便利な表現です。

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BBC News 6th October 2010

Floods and landslides kill at least 86 in Indonesia


At least 86 people are now known to have died in flooding in the eastern Indonesia province of West Papua.


Flash floods and landslides in the Teluk Wondama district have left another 80 people injured and sent thousands into evacuation centres.

l  Flash flood: sudden destructive flood of water

l  Evacuation centre: 避難所


Many more are missing after a river burst its banks, triggering a landslides and uprooting trees.

l  Burst: break violently open or apart, especially because of pressure from inside

l  Trigger: be the cause of a sudden (often) violent reaction; set an action or a process in motion もとの意味は「引き金を引く」からきている。ここでは「川の堤防の決壊が地滑りや木が根こそぎ倒れる原因となった」

l  Uproot: pull a tree or plant etc. out of the ground together with its roots


A navy warship has arrived near the disaster area, carrying tents, medical supplies and food.


The sudden flood caught residents by surprise, officials said, contributing to the high death toll.

l  contribute toは一般的に良い意味で(~に貢献する)使われるようだが、ここでは死者の数を増やす要因となったの意味。


Home washed away

“We are still searching for dozens of missing people.  The chance of survival for the missing people is slim,” Papua search and rescue official Mochamad Arifin told the AFP news agency

l  The chance is slim: チャンスが少ない


Many parts of the country had been badly hit by heavy rains, winds and high waves this year, meteorologists said.

l  Meteorologist: expert in meteorology


A Red Cross official told the BBC that the death toll was higher, and that 94 people were known to have been killed.

l  Be known to have been killed=be known to have died


Roads and bridges have been washed away and hundreds of homes, businesses and schools have been damaged or destroyed.

l  Damaged or destroyed: 被害の程度を表す2つの言葉に注目。Destroy はもとの形がなくなるほどのdamageを受けることである。Destroy:Damage something so badly that it no longer exists, works, etc.


Rescue workers and residents are reported to be sifting through the thick mud.

l  Sift : examine something carefully siftは粉をふるいにかける意味。


“I heard a roar and suddenly the river near my home broke its banks,” said Ira Wanoni, describing a flood which struck his village, Wasio.

l  Describe状況を説明するというような意味で使われる


“Water mixed with rocks, mud and logs gushed out.  Many people didn’t have time to save themselves, “ he told the AP news agency.

l  Gush: flow or pour out suddenly in great quantities




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