現在テンプレは3つ用意しております。


■テンプレ其の1 (長いテンプレ)

自分の名前を入力する部分が2ヵ所あることに気をつけてください。


Hello. I am (自分の名前), a citizen of Japan.

In recent years, a Korean organization, called VANK (Voluntary Agency Network of Korea) has been sending a large number of e-mails to notable world web sites and asking organizations to switch from the name Sea of Japan to East Sea. You might have received their messages, but I caution you about readily accepting their invalid claim, which will be explained below.

Following is some background information regarding VANK and the Sea of Japan, which is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bordered by Japan, South Korea, North Korea, and Russia.


1.The beginning was 1992

In 1992, North and South Korea somehow suddenly challenged the sole use of the name Sea of Japan at the Sixth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names. It was at this time that South Korea insisted that the name of the Sea of Japan be changed to East Sea, or that both names be used simultaneously.


2.Then came VANK

In the late 1990s, a Korean non-governmental internet organization, called VANK, with the support of the Korean government, initiated a massive world-wide campaign to send a collective protest e-mail to various organizations' online web sites. Most of these web sites were media-related or publishing company sites. You can view VANK's campaign at this website: http://prkorea.com/textbook/sendinvoice01-1.htm

Even though the Sea of Japan is the internationally-established English name, VANK claims, in their e-mails, that the body of water should be renamed the East Sea. The use of the name Sea of Japan has a historical background and a geographical rationale. I would be grateful if you would read further so that you might understand why I believe that VANK's claim is groundless.


3.Why are South Korea and VANK wrong?

South Korea asserts that the "Japanese government and its expansionism and colonial rules intentionally spread the use of Sea of Japan world widely in the latter half of the 19th century."

However, the Japanese government's survey of historical maps confirms that the name Sea of Japan was already prevalent in the early 19th century. Japan had an isolationist policy during the Edo Period (1603-1867), and was unable to exercise any influence to establish the name Sea of Japan. Therefore, their assertion is wholly invalid. Furthermore, South Korea provides no evidence for the assertion that the name East Sea has been used continuously for 2000 years. Even though the name East Sea is in use today in South Korea, it is obvious that the name East Sea is a local name, used only in South Korea, and that the name Sea of Japan is the only name that has been widely used internationally for a long period of time.

South Korea contends that the United Nations (UN) and the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) have issued resolutions that advocate the name East Sea be used together with Sea of Japan. However, neither UNCSGN Resolution III/20 nor IHO Technical Resolution A.4.2.6 includes any specific recommendation to use East Sea alongside Sea of Japan. Further, these resolutions presume that the geographical feature concerned is under the sovereignty of two or more countries, such as in the case of a bay or strait, and does not apply to the high seas such as with the Sea of Japan. Following the South Korea's assertion, if even one of the countries bordering the Atlantic or Pacific were to raise an objection to the names of these oceans, it would lead to the use of multiple names, which would clearly be unmanageable. The international community cannot accept such an argument.

The name East Sea was put forwards internationally by South Korea for the first time in 1990s and is a quite new name in the international community. Thus, the Resolution A4.2.6 should not be applied to the Sea of Japan which has already established itself internationally as a single name. The IHO Directing Committee (IHO-DC) represents the same perception.

Further, as stated below, the UN has already officially confirmed its policy requiring the use of Sea of Japan as the standard geographical term in all official UN publications. The IHO publication "Limits of Oceans and Seas" (S-23) also uses the name Sea of japan for the sea area concerned. This demonstrates that there is no UN or IHO resolution recommending the use of East Sea together with Sea of Japan.

Concerning the unfounded argument that it is fair to designate simultaneously different names as each party claims when there is a dispute over the name of geographical features, the United Nations Secreatriat clarifies its position that it observes the prevailing practice of the single use of Sea of Japan, explaining that dual designation breaches the prevailing practice and infringes the neutrality of the United Nations, and that fairness and neutrality can be achieved only through the observance of the practice.

*The Policy of the United Nations Concerning the Naming of Sea of Japan
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/un0406.html

South Korea provided the results of their own survey on historical maps of the world as proof of the validity of their claim. However, a later survey by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Japan proved that the South Korean survey lacked credibility (South Korean survey is not comprehensive and their survey counts "Oriental Sea" and "Sea of Korea" as East Sea) and it was discovered that there were few historical maps describing the body of water as the East Sea.


4.The only internationally-established name: Sea of Japan

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan conducted a survey of historical maps held by the British Library, the University of Cambridge, the United States Library of Congress, the Bibliotheque Nationale de France, and others, and revealed that there were many historical maps describing the body of water as the Sea of Japan, but few maps designating East Sea. Please refer to the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan at http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/index.html#5

Furthermore, the United Nations, as well as the Government of the United States, officially uses the sole description of the Sea of Japan.

The United Nations (UN) recognized Sea of Japan as the standard geographical term in March 2004, and UN policy states that the standard geographical term be used in official UN publications. The UN Secretariat has further clarified its stance on the issue by affirming the need to observe prevailing practice to ensure fairness and neutrality, stating that "without taking sides on the issue, the simultaneous use of both [Sea of Japan and 'East Sea'] infringes on the neutrality of the United Nations."

All federal agencies of the United States are required to use the name Sea of Japan. Other agencies within the United States are strongly encouraged to use the term as well. The governments of other major countries, including the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and China, officially use the name Sea of Japan.

*The Policy of the United Nations Concerning the Naming of Sea of Japan
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/un0406.html

*The policy of the US Government regarding the name Sea of Japan
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/us.html


5.East Sea is inadequate as an international name

South Korea gives the existence of "Sea of Korea" or "Mare Orientale (Oriental Sea)" in the historical maps as a ground for their claims that the name East Sea has a long international history. However, the name East Sea has a clearly different origin from the said other two names. South Korea has been calling the seas west, south and east of their countries "Sohae", "Namhae" and "Donghae/Tonghae" respectively. These names mean West Sea, South Sea and East Sea respectively. In other words, the name East Sea is merely an English translation of Donghae/Tonghae. Oriental Sea refers to the sea of the Orient from the perspective of the Occident, while East Sea means the sea on the eastern side of the Korean peninsula. And it is apparent that Sea of Korea and East Sea are different names. Moreover, it was at the end of 20th century when the name East Sea first appeared in the international community possibly for its political purpose. South Korea implies as if the names Sea of Korea or Oriental Sea equate with the name East Sea, but this is groundless and deceptive treatment. And for your information, there was a name "Eastern Sea" found in many of the old western maps made in the 19th century. This was another name for the current "East China Sea".

Although South Korea claims that the name East Sea means the sea east of Eurasian continent, it is in reality a subjective name from the viewpoint of the Korean Peninsula, because the name East Sea is merely an English translation of Donghae/Tonghae, as mentioned above. South Korea calls the neighboring seas east, south and west from the Korean Peninsula East Sea, South Sea and West Sea respectively. It should be regarded as self-righteousness to insist such a name based on direction from its own country as an international name.

In addition, while South Korea refers to Sea of Japan as Donghae/Tonghae, which means East Sea, China calls the "East China Sea" "Tonghai", which also means East Sea in China. These two names are just same when expressed in Chinese characters, which are common in the languages of China, Korea, and Japan. Thus, if these two names same in Chinese characters are used for neighboring waters, it must cause confusion among mariners, navigators and rescue teams who can read Chinese characters.

The name identical to East Sea is also used in the countries other than China. For example, "South China Sea" is called "Biendong" in Vietnam, which means East Sea in Vietnamese and thus East Sea is officially used as an English name for the water by the Government of Vietnam. A name that means East Sea is frequently used in Europe as well, such as the German name "Ostsee" and Swedish name "Ostersjon," both for "Baltic Sea" and mean "East Sea" in each language. Thus, East Sea can hardly be an international specific name for a certain limited area of water. Using such a name used for many different waters in the world as an international name must bring confusion among navigators worldwide.

As mentioned above, South Korea refers to the water south of the Korean Peninsula as Namhae, which means South Sea. A part of this area of South Sea is included in the sea that is referred to as the Sea of Japan in the current guideline S-23 (third edition, 1953).This means that the body of water that South Korea claims to call East Sea internationally includes a part of the water which South Korea itself calls South Sea. This kind of inconsistency can also be a problem, because clear delimitation of oceans and seas are necessary to navigational safety.

Also, as we have already discussed, South Korea calls the seas west, south and east of it Sohae, Namhae and Donghae/Tonghae (which will be West Sea, South Sea and East Sea respectively if shown in English). However, South Korea only claims to change the Sea of Japan to East Sea, and does not claim to change the "Yellow Sea" to West Sea or East China Sea to South Sea. This fact brings up the suspicion that South Korea intentionally sets only to make the Sea of Japan its target.


6.Sea of Japan was adopted in the first edition of the guideline S-23 (1929) without the intention of Japan

South Korea criticizes that Japan had submitted the name Sea of Japan to International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) in 1929 without consulting South Korea. However, the name Sea of Japan was adopted in the guideline S-23 on the basis of the fact that it had already established itself internationally as a single name by that time. Japan has never strongly claimed the usage of the name Sea of Japan to the international community.

Also, the fact should be noted that the name East Sea claimed by South Korea did not exist on any nautical chart in the world, which the IHO had referred to in preparation of the guideline before 1928.

And for your information, as mentioned above, the name Sea of Japan had established itself internationally as a single name by early 19th century. On the other hand, South Korea had never raised this issue to the United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names (UNCSGN) or IHO until the 1990s. Moreover, South Korea had been using the name Sea of Japan in their official navigational charts. In other words, there is a historical fact that South Korea had accepted the name Sea of Japan for nearly 50 years after it had moved itself out of the influence of Japan in the Second World War. Also, in the process of compiling the guideline S-23, as of 1986, South Korea agreed to inscribe the name Sea of Japan alone. The name East Sea first appeared in the nautical charts of South Korea in 1995. These pieces of information are from the website of the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan Coast Guard at http://www1.kaiho.mlit.go.jp/GIJUTSUKOKUSAI/nihonkai/position_eng.htm


7.Possible problems with the South Korean claim

Should such a claim by Korea on the names of oceans and seas be accepted, so must other similar self-interest claims. This would go against one of the objectives of the IHO, "the greatest possible uniformity in nautical charts and documents," and accordingly, possibly become a harmful precedent that opens the door on worldwide mariner confusion on the names of oceans and seas. In terms of ensuring navigational safety, continuity in the names of oceans and seas is important.


For these reasons, I recommend that you retain the sole use of the name Sea of Japan in all of your documents and atlases.

Thank you for taking the time to consider my e-mail. I trust you will use sound judgment.

Yours truly,
(自分の名前)


Other relevant web sites:

1.Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs

 *The Issue of the Name of the Sea of Japan
 http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/index.html

2.Pamphlets produced by Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs

 (1) A Historical overview of the name "Sea of Japan" [PDF]
 http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/pamph0606.pdf

 (2) History of the name "Sea of Japan" [PDF]
 http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/history.pdf

 (3) Sea of Japan [PDF]
 http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/pamph0208.pdf

 (4) Sea of Japan - The One and Only Name Familiar to the International Community [English (PDF)]
 http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/pamph0903.pdf

3.Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan Coast Guard

 *Naming of "Japan Sea"
 http://www1.kaiho.mlit.go.jp/GIJUTSUKOKUSAI/nihonkai/index_eng.htm






■テンプレ其の2 (短めのテンプレ)

自分の名前を入力する部分が2ヵ所あることに気をつけてください。


Hello. I am (自分の名前), a citizen of Japan.

In recent years, a Korean organization, called VANK (Voluntary Agency Network of Korea) has been sending a large number of e-mails to notable world web sites and asking organizations to switch from the name Sea of Japan to East Sea. You might have received their messages, but I warn you not to readily accept their invalid claim.

These are pamphlets produced by Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Please see these pdf files.

Sea of Japan - The One and Only Name Familiar to the International Community
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/pamph0903.pdf

A Historical overview of the name "Sea of Japan"
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/pamph0606.pdf

If you want more information, please go to the website of Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Japan Coast Guard given below. There are detailed information and detailed pamphlets about the problem.

I recommend that you retain the sole use of the name Sea of Japan in all the documents and atlases. I trust you will use sound judgment.

Sincerely yours,

(自分の名前)



For your reference,

(1)It is verified by a survey of historical maps from around the world conducted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan that the name Sea of Japan is the only internationally established name for the sea area concerned.

Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs "The Issue of the Name of the Sea of Japan"
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/index.html#5

Historical map research in the British Library

 Sea of Japan 32
 East Sea 0

Historical map reasearch in the University of Cambridge

 Sea of Japan 18
 East Sea 0

Historical map research in the Bibliotheque Nationale de France

 Sea of Japan 254
 East Sea 0

Historical map reaserch in the U.S. Library of Congress

 Sea of Japan 1110
 East Sea 2

Historical map research in the Russian Federation

 Sea of Japan 29
 East Sea 1

Historical map research in the Berlin State Library

 Sea of Japan 579
 East Sea 5

Historical map research in the collection of antiquarian map dealer Nikolaus Struck

 Sea of Japan 35
 East Sea 0



(2)The United Nations as well as the Government of the United States officially uses the name Sea of Japan.

United Nations officially uses the sole description of the Sea of Japan.
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/un0406.html

In March 2004, the United Nations Secretariat confirmed its policy that 'Sea of Japan' is the standard geographical term and as such is to be used in official documents of the United Nations.

 1. In response to the enquiry by the Government of Japan, the United Nations Secretariat officially replied on 10 March 2004, that 'Sea of Japan' is the standard geographical term and as such is to be used in official documents of the United Nations. It is confirmed that the name 'Sea of Japan' is authorized by the United Nations which is the most comprehensive and neutral international organization with the participation of 192 member states including both Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK), and the most proper forum to represent the collective will of the international community.

 2. Concerning the unfounded argument that it is fair to designate simultaneously different names as each party claims when there is a dispute over the name of geographical features, the United Nations Secreatriat clarifies its position that it observes the prevailing practice of the single use of 'Sea of Japan,' explaining that dual designation breaches the prevailing practice and infringes the neutrality of the United Nations, and that fairness and neutrality can be achieved only through the observance of the practice.

 3. It is expected that the international community including various international organizations pays fullest respect to the policy employed by the United Nations, even though it does not bind directly other international organizations.


U.S. Board on Geographic Names officially uses the sole description of the Sea of Japan.
http://www.mofa.go.jp/POLICY/maritime/japan/us.html

 1. The US Board on Geographic Names is a US governmental organization established in 1947 to standardize the geographic names used in government publications. The policy of naming determined by the Board is binding upon all the federal governmental agencies, including the Department of State. All publications issued by such agencies must therefore comply with the policy. It is also strongly recommended that other organizations in the US comply with the policy determined by the Board.

 2. The US Board on Geographic Names officially published their determination that the name Sea of Japan is the only officially recognized name for the sea area concerned. This means that all the US federal governmental agencies are required to use the name Sea of Japan, and that other organizations in the US are strongly recommended to use it.


U.S. Department of State officially uses the sole description of the Sea of Japan.
http://www.state.gov/p/eap/ci/ks/

International Hydrographic Organization officially uses the sole description of the Sea of Japan
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/iho.html

CIA officially uses the sole description of the Sea of Japan.
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ks.html

New York Times officially uses the sole description of the Sea of Japan.
http://query.nytimes.com/search/sitesearch?query=%22Sea+of+Japan%22&more=date_all

CNN officially uses the sole description of the Sea of Japan
http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/07/04/nkorea.missiles/index.html?iref=newssearch



(3)Other relevant web sites

Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs "The Issue of the Name of the Sea of Japan"
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/index.html

Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan Coast Guard "Naming of "Japan Sea""
http://www1.kaiho.mlit.go.jp/GIJUTSUKOKUSAI/nihonkai/index_eng.htm






■テンプレ其の3 (テンプレ其の2の(2)の部分を簡略化してさらに短くしたもの)

自分の名前を入力する部分が2ヵ所あることに気をつけてください。


Hello. I am (自分の名前), a citizen of Japan.

In recent years, a Korean organization, called VANK (Voluntary Agency Network of Korea) has been sending a large number of e-mails to notable world web sites and asking organizations to switch from the name Sea of Japan to East Sea. You might have received their messages, but I warn you not to readily accept their invalid claim.

These are pamphlets produced by Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Please see these pdf files.

Sea of Japan - The One and Only Name Familiar to the International Community
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/pamph0903.pdf

A Historical overview of the name "Sea of Japan"
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/pamph0606.pdf

If you want more information, please go to the website of Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Japan Coast Guard given below. There are detailed information and detailed pamphlets about the problem.

I recommend that you retain the sole use of the name Sea of Japan in all the documents and atlases. I trust you will use sound judgment.

Sincerely yours,

(自分の名前)



For your reference,

(1)It is verified by a survey of historical maps from around the world conducted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan that the name Sea of Japan is the only internationally established name for the sea area concerned.

Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs "The Issue of the Name of the Sea of Japan"
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/index.html#5

Historical map research in the British Library

 Sea of Japan 32
 East Sea 0

Historical map reasearch in the University of Cambridge

 Sea of Japan 18
 East Sea 0

Historical map research in the Bibliotheque Nationale de France

 Sea of Japan 254
 East Sea 0

Historical map reaserch in the U.S. Library of Congress

 Sea of Japan 1110
 East Sea 2

Historical map research in the Russian Federation

 Sea of Japan 29
 East Sea 1

Historical map research in the Berlin State Library

 Sea of Japan 579
 East Sea 5

Historical map research in the collection of antiquarian map dealer Nikolaus Struck

 Sea of Japan 35
 East Sea 0



(2)The United Nations as well as the Government of the United States officially uses the name Sea of Japan.

United Nations officially uses the sole description of the Sea of Japan.
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/un0406.html

U.S. Board on Geographic Names officially uses the sole description of the Sea of Japan.
http://www.mofa.go.jp/POLICY/maritime/japan/us.html

U.S. Department of State officially uses the sole description of the Sea of Japan.
http://www.state.gov/p/eap/ci/ks/

International Hydrographic Organization officially uses the sole description of the Sea of Japan
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/iho.html

CIA officially uses the sole description of the Sea of Japan.
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ks.html

New York Times officially uses the sole description of the Sea of Japan.
http://query.nytimes.com/search/sitesearch?query=%22Sea+of+Japan%22&more=date_all

CNN officially uses the sole description of the Sea of Japan
http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/07/04/nkorea.missiles/index.html?iref=newssearch



(3)Other relevant web sites

Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs "The Issue of the Name of the Sea of Japan"
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/index.html

Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan Coast Guard "Naming of "Japan Sea""
http://www1.kaiho.mlit.go.jp/GIJUTSUKOKUSAI/nihonkai/index_eng.htm






■追記

 テンプレ其の2とテンプレ其の3の2段落目に関しては、以下の文章と交換しても構いません。


Recently, many South Korean organizations have been claiming that the name Sea of Japan, the sea between the Asian continent and the Japanese Archipelago, should be renamed the East Sea, but I warn you not to readily accept their invalid claim.