獨樂獨歩

英単語力増強の為、英文を読み初出単語を覚えるように駄洒落や英作文で定着を目指すものです。

主に英単語力増強を目指しています。英字新聞記事や雑誌、最近では英語の漫画も見て 思うところを書いています。一部和訳、英作文に挑戦しています。

下記の英文を読んでcomprehensive school はprivate schoolに対する学校のようなので公立校とするのが妥当なように思われるのだが、訳では総合中学校となっている。高校時代には英国のgrammar schoolという説明文があったが、今はgrammar schoolというのはないようだ。

【英文】
Oxford and Cambridge have long been criticized for admitting a disproportionate number of students from private schools like Westminster and Eton. Last year, Oxford admitted more students from 12 private private schools than it did from all 841 state comprehensive schools.
(Choosing the best students isn't easy. by Peter Singer, Princeton New Jersey)

Wikipediaによると

Comprehensive school (England and Wales)
In England and Wales, a comprehensive school is a type of secondary school that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude or the wealth of the parents of the children it accepts.

History
Before the Second World War, secondary education provision in Britain was both patchy and expensive. After the war, secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland was provided free to at least the age of 14 under a policy introduced by Conservative Secretary of State for Education R.A. Butler. The Education Act 1944 made provision for primary, secondary and further education but did not mention the 11+ exam or the tripartite system (secondary modern, secondary technical and grammar school). 'The tripartite system was no more than the continuation of the 19th century class-based system of English education which had been promoted by the reports of Spens (1938) and Norwood (1943)' (D. Gillard, 2011). However, as a result of the flexibility of the Education Act 1944, many Local Education Authorities (LEAs) were free to choose how to establish the secondary school sector. Many LEAs chose to adopt the tripartite system described in Norwood's 1943 report.

Comprehensive schooling was introduced in 1965 by the Labour Government of the time. Pupils sat the 11+ examination in their last year of primary education and were sent to one of a secondary modern, secondary technical or grammar school depending on their perceived ability. As it transpired, secondary technical schools were never widely implemented and for 20 years there was a virtual bipartite system which saw fierce competition for the available grammar school places, which varied between 15% and 25% of total secondary places, depending on location.

Early comprehensives
The first comprehensives were set up after the Second World War. In 1946, for example, Walworth School was one of five 'experimental' comprehensive schools set up by the London County Council. Another early comprehensive school was Holyhead County School in Anglesey in 1949. Other places that experimented with comprehensives included Coventry, Sheffield, Leicestershire, and the West Riding of Yorkshire.

These early comprehensives mostly modelled themselves, in terms of ethos, on the grammar school, with gown-wearing teachers conducting lessons in a very formal style. Some comprehensive schools have continued to follow this model, especially those that were themselves grammar schools before becoming comprehensives. The opening of Risinghill School in Islington in 1960 offered an alternative to this model. Embracing the progressive ideals of sixties education, the school abandoned corporal punishment and brought in a much more liberal attitude to discipline and methods of study. However, this idea did not take hold in many places.

Nationwide implementation
The largest expansion of comprehensive schools resulted from a policy decision taken in 1965 by Anthony Crosland, Secretary of State for Education in the 1964–1970 Labour government, a fervent supporter of comprehensive education. This had been the party's policy for some time. The policy decision was implemented by Circular 10/65, an instruction to local education authorities to plan for conversion.

In 1970 the Conservative Party re-entered government. Margaret Thatcher became Secretary of State for Education, and ended the compulsion on local authorities to convert. However, many local authorities were so far down the path that it would have been prohibitively expensive to attempt to reverse the process, and more comprehensive schools were established under Mrs Thatcher than any other education secretary. However, she went on to be a ferocious critic of comprehensive education. By 1975 the majority of local authorities in England and Wales had abandoned the eleven-plus examination and moved to a comprehensive system.

Over that 10-year period many secondary modern schools and grammar schools were amalgamated to form large neighbourhood comprehensives, whilst a number of new schools were built to accommodate a growing school population. By 1968 around 20% of children had been in comprehensives, and by the mid-1970s the system had been almost fully implemented. Nearly all new schools were built as comprehensives, and existing grammar and modern schools had either been closed (see for example the Liverpool Institute) or amalgamated with neighbouring secondary moderns to produce comprehensive schools. A small number of local education authorities have held out against the trend, such as Kent. In those places, grammar schools, secondary modern schools and selection at 11 continue.


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Boston Red Sox と  New York Yankeesの第一試合はRed Sox fansが手に汗握る試合だった模様だ。
第二試合は田中マー君が勝利投手だったらしい。
英字新聞を読んでwhite knuckleは魔球かと最初思ったのだが、やはり「手に汗握る」だった...。

white knucle 
1(especially of a fairground ride) causing extreme excitement or fear.

1.1 Displaying or characterized by extreme excitement or fear. a succession of white-knuckled passengers got out of the plane

1) But then I tuned in one time and my white-knuckled fingers never let go.
2) There are guns and white-knuckled chases, murderous plots and heroic rescues; an entertaining read.
3) Despite advice to remain calm, my white-knuckled hand slowly eases the control stick to the right.
4) A couple of white-knuckled tourists, fearfully working their way up the cables, stare in amazement as he saunters past.
5) He was gripping the ship's wheel with white-knuckled hands, and his eyes were combing the rigging, looking for signs of trouble.
6) I carefully looked over my shoulder expecting to be greeted with a wide-eyed grimace of sheer white-knuckled terror.
7) My palms were slick-wet on the laptop: I tightened my already white-knuckled grip.
8) The driver was getting white-knuckled and agitated.
9) For years the bottleneck has provided a daily white-knuckled driving experience for 300,000 motorists.


【英字新聞】
BOSTON — Chris Sale struck out eight for his first postseason win, J.D. Martinez hit a three-run homer and the Boston Red Sox sweated out their shaky bullpen to hold off the New York Yankees 5-4 on Friday night in Game 1 of the AL Division Series.

One year after he was pounded by Houston in his playoff debut, Sale took a four-hit shutout into the sixth inning. The Yankees loaded the bases in the sixth and seventh, cutting the deficit to 5-3. Aaron Judge homered off Craig Kimbrel leading off the ninth before the Red Sox closer retired the next three batters, striking out Giancarlo Stanton and Luke Voit for the save.

Game 2 in the best-of-five series is Saturday night, with Boston starting another pitcher trying to overcome a history of postseason struggles: left-hander David Price is 0-8 as a starter in the playoffs. He’ll face Yankees righty Masahiro Tanaka.

In the first playoff matchup between the longtime rivals since 2004, the 108-win Red Sox took a 5-0 lead against Yankees starter J.A. Happ and then white-knuckled(1) it after Sale left with two on and one out in the sixth.
(1) white-knuckled =

New York, which won 100 regular-season games plus the AL wild-card game against Oakland, got three singles and two walks in the sixth, scoring two before Brandon Workman – the only player on the Red Sox roster with a World Series ring – struck out Gleyber Torres to end the threat.

The Yankees loaded the bases with nobody out in the seventh but scored just one run. Boston Manager Alex Cora used scheduled Game 3 starter Rick Porcello to get two outs in the eighth before turning to Kimbrel for a four-out save.

It was the first ALDS matchup between the teams and the first in the postseason since the Red Sox staged an unprecedented rally from a 3-0 deficit in the 2004 AL Championship Series to advance and then won the World Series to end their 86-year dynasty of disappointment. (They also met in the ALCS the year before, and it ended with current Yankees manager Aaron Boone’s 11th-inning homer in Game 7, better known in Boston as the game when Manager Grady Limageittle inexplicably left a tiring Pedro Martinez on the mound.)

Boston fans were ready, chanting during introductions and again after Martinez smacked a 2-0 fastball into the glove of a stem cell researcher in the front row of the seats above the Green Monster.

The Red Sox made it 5-0 in the third when Mookie Betts doubled off the left-field wall and Andrew Benintendi chased Happ with a bunt single that moved the runner to third. Steve Pearce singled in one run and another scored on Xander Bogaerts’ sacrifice fly.

Sale left with a 5-0 lead after giving up singles to Judge and Stanton in the sixth; both came around to score. In all, Sale was charged with two runs on five hits and two walks in 51/3 innings – the longest playoff outing for a Red Sox starter since 2013.

Martinez and Benintendi each had two hits for Boston. Judge had three hits and Voit had two for New York, which went 1 for 7 with runners in scoring position.

Happ lasted just two innings for his shortest postseason start, allowing five runs on four hits and a walk while striking out two.



自民党総裁選挙で現総裁・現首相に投票しないと党内の役員や閣僚に処遇しないというのはreprisalではなかろうか?英文はPutinに関する記事の中にあったが、何処の国も権力を掌握するのはreprisalすると脅かすのかも........。

【英文】
That's up from 133 and 182 respectively in 2011, the year before the Putin began his third presidential term, which was marked by stepped-up reprisals① against any kind of political oppositions.

① reprisal/rɪˈprʌɪz(ə)l/
(政治的・軍事的)報復、仕返し /rɪprάɪzl(米国英語)/

1An act of retaliation. ‘three youths died in the reprisals which followed’ mass noun ‘the threat of reprisal’

1) The other side of the coin is the individual's right to personal privacy and the right, of say human rights activists, to communicate online without fear of reprisals from repressive regimes needs to be protected.
2) Negotiations can consist of suggesting courses of action, threatening reprisals, offering to work together, showing or demanding to see cards, or anything at all.
3) Though the British as a whole supported the policy of reprisals, the toll of death and destruction in Berlin and other large cities caused misgivings and public questioning of the morality of ‘area’ bombing.’
4) The Allies, who were at one stage two days’ march from Paris, had circulated details of their planned reprisals, so that the Revolutionaries knew who was to be tortured to death and who merely imprisoned for life.
5) Zimmerman continues: ‘Those people to whom trade, growth and profit count most make the point that economic reprisals are inevitable.’
6) The reason that serious entertainment journalism only tends to exist in major outlets is that only major outlets can scare the system out of reprisals for their honesty.
7) People rightly aren't willing to risk destroying their own careers if they sense there isn't sufficient protection from reprisals by their superiors.
8) Although that revolt failed, the brutal Ottoman reprisals, which killed 30,000 Bulgarians, drew Europe's attention to what had previously been considered an Ottoman backwater.
9) She is panicked about possible reprisals at work because of her illness and absences, together with the fact that she is seeing a psychiatrist.
10) Like Grandma, the two guerrillas had taken revolutionary names to bolster their morale and, in the advent of capture, to shield their villages and families from reprisals.
1.1historical mass noun The forcible seizure of a foreign subject or their goods as an act of retaliation.

Origin
Late Middle English: from Anglo-Norman French reprisaille, from medieval Latin reprisalia (neuter plural), based on Latin repraehens- ‘seized’, from the verb repraehendere (see reprehend). The current sense dates from the early 18th century.

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