主に英単語力増強を目指しています。英字新聞記事や雑誌、最近では英語の漫画も見て 思うところを書いています。一部和訳、英作文に挑戦しています。

当たり前のことを当たり前に書き 定義しておくのが tout court に大事なことなんだろうなあ....。

In mass production, economies of scale are realized at the product level.

In Build-to-Order and Mass Customization,
economies of scale are realized at the level of part and raw materials.

Standardization supports the fundamental precepts of build-to-order and mass customization: All parts must be available at all points of use, not just "somewhere in the plant," which eliminates the setup to find, load, or kit parts. As a stand-alone program, standardization can reduce cost and improve flexibility.

Standardization makes it easier for parts to be pulled into assembly (instead of ordering and waiting) by reducing the number of part types to the point where the remaining few standard parts can receive the focus to arrange demand-pull just-in-time deliveries. Fewer types of parts ordered in larger quantities reduces part cost and material overhead cost.

The following practical standardization techniques are presented in all of Dr. Anderson's in-house seminars. Dr. Anderson is an experienced workshop facilitator who can help companies quickly implement standardization.


いつものことながら 文芸評は難しい語句で表現される。tout courtを調べるのに随分時間を要した。仏語が語源なものを このような文で使って 多くの英米人は、矢張り理解出来るのだろうかと思ったのだが...。発音を聴いて[突くわ]に聞こえた。もしくは 東北弁なら「田鍬」かも。

Mishima's account of his explosive seminal interaction with Western painting stood as an embodiment of the stimulation received from the visual arts on modern Japanese literature, tout court①.
(Yukio Mishima: Saints and seppuku, by Damian Flanagan on page 18 The Japan Times, Jan. 7, 2018)

① tout court = With no addition or qualification; simply. ‘he saw religion as an illusion, tout court’
French, literally ‘very short’.
Pronunciation: tout court/tuː ˈkʊə//tu kuʀ/
【別解】Definition of tout court: quite short : and nothing else : simply : period

(1) Fine; but it should be kept in mind that dismissing biographical criticism is not the same thing as disapproving tout court of literary biography.
(2) Traditions of casuistry, or inter-generational equity, or equity tout court, or professional role, unite their adherents across the complex traditions which they may see as their primary traditions.
(3) That is to say, Garrard makes an entirely illegitimate comparison between hostility to a body of people who cannot be accused of being oppressive, tout court, and hostility to a state which definitely can.
(4) Our response to this argument is that not all Conceptual Art was generic-type art tout court, and that its reflection in painting is thus similarly non-generic.
(5) The roots of post-structuralism and its unifying basis lie in a general opposition not to the philosophical tradition tout court but specifically to the Hegelian tradition.
(6) The vulnerability that people in exile feel is far greater than the anxiety of not having an essential identity; their problem is a lack of identity tout court.
(7) To do that is to question the belief that what is delivered or at least promised under the aegis of the American state, on the American continent, can be neatly identified with human freedom, tout court.



(The Japan Times on Sunday: Jan. 7, 2018, page 18: by Damian Flansgan)
In March 1937, an official in the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Azusa Hiraoka, traveled to Europe on government business and acquired some guides to Italian museums.

Prudishly(1) fearing, however, that his 12-year-old son might be exposed to the depictions of female nudes contained within, he hid the books in a closet in the family home in Tokyo. One day, his son Kimitake — a bright, fragile boy — was off school sick and discovered the books.
(1) prudishly = Having or revealing a tendency to be easily shocked by matters relating to sex or nudity; excessively concerned with sexual propriety.‘the prudish moral climate of the late 19th century’

A decade later, Kimitake — following in his father’s footsteps — was himself working as a bureaucrat. Since the age of 16 he had also been prolifically publishing stories and novels, but at the age of 23 decided to risk everything by resigning from his job and penning a single autobiographical novel.

It was the moment at the beginning of that novel when Kimitake described his childish self leafing through the pages of those art books that would create an electrifying, unforgettable scene of Japanese literature.

For it was not the female nudes but a painting by Guido Reni(2) from the Palazzo Rosso(1)' in Genoa of the martyrdom of Saint Sebastian — an almost naked man, tied to a tree, his flesh impaled with arrows from the soldiers executing him — that had an overwhelming impact.
(2) Guido Reni = グイド・レーニ(Guido Reni, 1575年11月4日 - 1642年8月18日)は、17世紀前半、バロック期に活動したイタリアの画家。アンニーバレ・カラッチらによって創始されたボローニャ派に属する画家で、ラファエロ風の古典主義的な画風を特色とする。日本語では、ファーストネームを「グイード」、姓を「レニ」と表記する場合もあるが、ここでは慣用的表記に従う。
(1)' Palazzo Rosso = Palazzo Rosso is a historical palace of Genoa, northern Italy. Situated in Via Garibaldi, it is one of the most important picture galleries of the city, along with the galleries of Palazzo Bianco and Palazzo Doria Tursi. Palazzo Rosso was designed by the architect Pietro Antonio Corradi and was built between 1671 and 1677. The Brignole Sale family owned the palace until 1874, when Maria Brignole Sale, duchess of Galliera, bequeathed it to the city of Genoa, in order to "increase its artistic splendor and practical resources". The palace then became municipal property and it was destined to become a public gallery.

Kimitake — writing “Confessions of a Mask” under his pseudonym Yukio Mishima — described the painting as stirring his deepest sexual imagination. Shaped by years of near imprisonment as a young child in his grandmother’s room — Mishima had until the age of 12 lived with his controlling grandmother and only just returned to his parents’ home — and already stimulated by sado-masochistic images of seppuku and death, he described how this image caused him to suddenly masturbate and experience his first “ejaculatio.”

Mishima’s account of his explosive seminal interaction with Western painting stood as an embodiment of the stimulation received from the visual arts on modern Japanese literature, tout court. But there was something quintessentially Mishima-esque about the nature of this encounter. This was literature not as with Soseki, Kawabata and others — as explained in the previous parts of this series — in quest of objective reflections of an external reality to provide new ways of seeing, but as a volcanic descent into deep-seated, taboo desire.

The execution of Saint Sebastian became a defining image that would haunt and inspire Mishima’s imagination, but it was not the only one. In early adolescence Mishima had also discovered Aubrey Beardsley’s(3) illustrations of Oscar Wilde’s play “Salome,” showing erotic, stylized images of Salome holding the severed head of John the Baptist.
(3) Aubrey Beardsley = オーブリー・ヴィンセント・ビアズリー(Aubrey Vincent Beardsley [ˈɔːbri ˈvinsənt ˈbiəd͡zli], 1872年8月21日 - 1898年3月16日)は、イギリスのイラストレーター、詩人、小説家。ヴィクトリア朝の世紀末美術を代表する存在。悪魔的な鋭さを持つ白黒のペン画で鬼才とうたわれたが、病弱ゆえに25歳の若さで夭折した。

For the rest of his life, Mishima constantly returned to these two visual images. When in late 1951 Mishima departed on his first round-the-world trip, he made it his business to see both a performance of Richard Strauss’ “Salome” in New York and to view paintings by Guido Reni of Saint Sebastian(4) in the Capitoline Museum in Rome.
(4) Saint Sebastian = (died c. 288 AD) an early Christian saint and martyr. According to traditional belief, he was killed during the Roman emperor Diocletian's persecution of Christians. He is commonly depicted in art and literature tied to a post or tree and shot with arrows. Despite this being the most common artistic depiction of Sebastian, he was, according to legend, rescued and healed by Irene of Rome. Shortly afterwards he went to Diocletian to warn him about his sins, and as a result was clubbed to death. He is venerated in the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church.

The details of Saint Sebastian's martyrdom were first spoken of by 4th-century bishop Ambrose(5) of Milan (Saint Ambrose), in his sermon (number 22) on Psalm 118. Ambrose stated that Sebastian came from Milan and that he was already venerated there at that time. Saint Sebastian is a popular male saint, especially among athletes.
(5) Ambrose = Aurelius Ambrosius[a] (c. 340–397), better known in English as Ambrose (/ˈæmbroʊz/), was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century. He was the Roman governor of Liguria and Emilia, headquartered in Milan, before being made bishop of Milan by popular acclamation in 374. Ambrose was a staunch opponent of Arianism, and has been accused of fostering persecutions {citation needed} of Arians, Jews, and pagans. Traditionally, Ambrose is credited with promoting "antiphonal chant", a style of chanting in which one side of the choir responds alternately to the other, as well as with composing Veni redemptor gentium, an Advent hymn. He was also interested in the condition of contemporary Italian society. Ambrose was one of the four original Doctors of the Church, and is the patron saint of Milan. He is notable for his influence on Augustine of Hippo.

In 1960, in what he declared was the culmination of a lifetime ambition, he managed to put a production of “Salome” on the Tokyo stage and in 1965-66 he spent an entire year taking French lessons so he could read and help translate Gabriele D’Annunzio’s play “The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian” into Japanese.

In 1968, he even famously posed — showing off his bulked-up bodybuilder’s physique — as Saint Sebastian in a loincloth, impaled with arrows in a series of photographs by Kishin Shinoyama.

In 1956, Mishima published his famous novel “The Temple of the Golden Pavilion,” based on a real-life event, in which he depicted a Buddhist acolyte so obsessed with the powerful visual image formed in his imagination of the Golden Pavilion in Kyoto that he eventually sets it on fire to liberate himself. Yet the visual images that haunted Mishima’s imagination were not that of the Golden Pavilion, but of Saint Sebastian, seppuku and Salome.

Crucially, Saint Sebastian was a powerful fable of eternal life. Mishima relates how Sebastian was a beautiful youth who mysteriously appeared from the sea, became captain of the Praetorian Guard, was persecuted for his religious beliefs, but when seemingly killed by his executioners, had been brought back to life. To observe Mishima in the final years of his life is to witness him transforming himself into a Saint Sebastian figure: He formed his own private army and made himself captain of it and spouted political beliefs that aroused huge hostility from mainstream commentators. He devoted himself to the composition of his “life work,” “The Sea of Fertility” — a four-volume novel describing the apparent repeated reincarnation of its young protagonist, which opens the final volume with an extraordinary, lengthy description of human-less seascapes.

The day in 1970 Mishima chose for his death — Nov. 25 — was the same date that he commenced writing “Confessions of a Mask.” On that morning, Mishima left behind on his desk a final note: “Human life is short, but I wish to live forever.” After he and four of his army cadets took a general hostage at an army base in Ichigaya, Mishima strutted out onto a balcony to address the 1,000 men of the base. The bored, bewildered servicemen hailed Mishima with a barrage of abuse, calling him an idiot and worse. This was Mishima’s true Saint Sebastian moment: standing in his captain’s uniform, bombarded with arrows of abuse. Then Mishima returned inside and commenced his seppuku, before being beheaded by one of his attendants. The morning finished, Salome-like, with Mishima’s severed head on the carpet.

Most commentaries on Mishima only see the Japanese side of his spectacular death. But the seppuku was also the segue(6) between the realization of the two visual arts images that had dominated Mishima’s imagination all his life.
(6) segue = 1no object, with adverbial (in music and film) move without interruption from one piece of music or scene to another. ‘allow one song to segue into the next’ 1.1 Move or shift from one role, state, or condition to another. ‘from the humour magazine, the New York-born artist segued into producing films’
NOUN plural segues 1An uninterrupted transition from one piece of music or film scene to another.
1.1 A transition from one role, state, or condition to another. ‘that's actually a perfect segue into my next question’
Origin Italian,‘follows’.

The power of the visual arts on the Japanese literary imagination — one of the most important but largely unknown stories in modern literature — had produced its own spectacular visual event, the defining counter-cultural image of postwar Japanese history.