2008年10月09日

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008 に関するわかりにくい補足

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具体的な応用例が明確である分、 物理学賞に比べれば素人にはわかりやすく、
理解した気分にさせる説明は可能になるのですが、
野依先生が以前そのようなことを言っていたように、
科学は本質的にはわかりにくいものであり、わかりやすい説明では、わかった気分にさせることはできても、本質を何一つ伝えないのです。





東京大学大学院情報理工学系研究科電子情報学専攻 A教授の話
「その点 医療とか薬学は役に立つ応用がはっきりしているからいいよ、
人の命を救うためとか、即物的に役に立つし、研究費もらうための説得力をつけやすいし、
やっぱりああゆう実際に役に立つ分野に研究を力を入れないとね〜」


「日本人のノーベル賞受賞者といってもそんなでもないな〜
ここにアインシュタインが座ってたんだとか言うとすごい感じがするけど、
本郷の校舎の、ここを小柴先生が歩いたんだぜ、とか言っても、
あんまり感慨がないな〜」






for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP

下村脩 1/3
Martin Chalfie 1/3
Roger Y. Tsien 1/3








The discovery of aequorin and green fluorescent protein
Journal of Microscopy
Volume 217 Issue 1, Pages 3 - 15
2005


We discovered aequorin and green fluorescent protein (GFP)
in 1961 from the same species of jellyfish (Shimomura
et al ., 1962). Our target was a luminescent substance, aequorin,
and GFP was isolated as a by-product of aequorin owing to its
bright conspicuous fluorescence. Both are unusual proteins
but they had no particular importance when we first reported
them. Their importance became apparent in the course of
studies, and now, 40 years after their discovery, they are well
known and widely used, aequorin as a calcium probe and GFP
as a marker protein.


.................................
.................................


GFP



「化学賞は意外」「クラゲ85万匹採取」下村さん語る


To obtain 1 mg of AF-350, 100–200 mg of pure aequorin
was required, which would require about 2.5 tons of jellyfish
or 50000 animals. To process 50000 jellyfish in one summer,

we would need to collect, cut and extract 3000 jellyfish each
day, allowing for days of bad weather and poor fishing. It was a
workload that could not be accomplished by collecting jellyfish
at the lab dock and cutting rings with scissors at a rate of
one per minute. To solve the problem, Dr Johnson constructed
two jellyfish cutting machines, as illustrated in Fig. 7.

.................................
.................................


I spent the next several days soul-searching, trying to imagine
the reaction that might occur in luminescing jellyfish and
searching for a way to extract the luminescent principle. I
often meditated on the problem on a drifting rowing boat
under clear summer skies. Friday Harbor in summer at that
time was quiet and peaceful, quite different from the presentday,
when it is saturated with busy pleasure boats and noisy
seaplanes. Meditation afloat was safe but if I fell asleep the boat
was carried away by the tide so that I had to row for a long time
to get back to the laboratory.


One afternoon, a thought suddenly struck me, a thought
so simple that I should have had it much sooner: even if a
luciferin–luciferase system is not involved in the jellyfish
luminescence, an enzyme or protein is probably involved in
the luminescence reaction. If so,
..................






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1. 祝・下村脩氏「ノーベル化学賞受賞」  [ 博士の独り言 ]   2008年10月10日 20:34
日本人の底力、連日の朗報! 下村脩氏に「ノーベル化学賞」 【ノーベル化学賞】下村氏受賞、クラゲの緑色蛍光タンパク発見  スウェ...

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