2005年09月01日

付和雷同

尾張です。
9月1日、長久手の『劇作家大会』の開会でございました。
周りは、似たような雰囲気の人ばっかり。大笑い。これが演劇人のアトモスフィアなのか・・? 
事実はともかく、誰も金持ってそうに見えないし(笑)。

ところで、隣はご存知の『愛・地球博』会場です。
9月1日、夏休みも終わりの平日。ってことで、『空いている?』と考える人が多かったのか、(実際僕もそう思ったのですけど)なんと・・・・

『入場者17万人超=開催中 第3番目の多さ』

だそうです。
みんな考えることは同じなのですかねえ・・。

ted803 at 14:53|PermalinkComments(0)TrackBack(0) お出かけ 

2005年08月31日

医療事故?5

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国立病院機構滋賀病院(滋賀県東近江市)の医師が、手術中に「やめてくれ」などと言って暴れた患者に腹を立て、頭を殴って5日間のけがをさせていたことが分かった。(共同通信)8月30日
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ぎゃははは! 
僕(患者)は運がいいほうだったんだ!
良かった、お医者さんが人格者で・・。


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2005年08月30日

メスが入りました。1

96f2cad8.jpg色男じゃないけど台無し。
今日は、とうとう悪化した眼にメス、ピノコも喜ぶプチ・オペでした。

昨夜は痛くて眠れなかったし、もう避けることはできませんでした。
それ自体は大したことはないのですけれども、(もともと大したことではないし)術後の片目状態ですごした今日一日が大変でした。
階段は踏み外す、人にはぶつかる、遠近感もつかめないし、半分視野が無いので、きょろきょろするので疲れるし、正常な左目も過労気味でした。

どうせなら『思われニキビ』の方がよいのだ。


ted803 at 22:00|PermalinkComments(0)TrackBack(0) 出来事 | 愚痴。

2005年08月29日

ヤスは主演か助演か5

 平田満さんは大好きな俳優さんでして、四捨五入すれば20歳の頃、某養成所のオーディションで、『好きな俳優は?』との問いに、同氏のお名前を答えたことをしっかりと記憶してます。
 先週末、ある場で平田さんと同席させていただく機会があって、『写真取らせてください』っていうミーハー路線から、『弟子にしてください』の猪突猛進まで、いろいろと為す選択はあったのですけど、小心者なのでおとなしくしてました。
 ただ、お隣だったので、(おおーヤスだ!とつぶやきつつ)こっそり仕草のマネをしてました。

 さて、その平田満さんは、1982年にアカデミー賞の主演男優賞を取られてます。ところが、同じ作品で、『主演』男優賞と同時に別の表彰で『助演』男優賞も取られてます。
 思い起こすあの名作。誰が主演か?で、帰りに同伴したアシスタントさんと論じてました。 平田さんのヤスは『主演』だったのですよね。 劇中で端役の役だけど映画的には主役だったということで、演技が迫真だっただけに『大部屋」のイメージが強いのかもしれません。 どうも、銀ちゃん(風間杜夫さん)が主役、って感じがしませんか?

 『端役が主演で、主役が助演だった』というのが、そもそも面白かったのかもしれません。 しっかりした『助演』俳優ってのもスバラシイですね。 チョイ役と脇役と端役、敵役に道化役・・・『助演』って定義が混同してますけど、使い方間違わないようにしないといけませんね。

 ストーリー上、アンチテーゼになっていることが多いだけで、たぶん主演と同価値なわけですよね。だから、主演男優賞と助演男優賞は同時受賞できる、ってのはどうでしょうか?

ted803 at 01:00|PermalinkComments(0)TrackBack(0) 芸能 | 出来事

2001年01月14日

WORKSHOP

Workshop : The phase of the performance process where materials found, invented, and played with

Workshop is the active research phase of the performance process. Some artists use workshops to explore processes that will be useful in rehearsals and in making performances.  For example, I led in workshops in the 1990s at New York university, I developed an exercise roughly based on the eight fundamental emotions described in the Natyasastra, the ancient Sanskrit manual for performers, directors, playwrights, and theatre architects. The rasaboxes exercise takes place inside a rectangle of nine boxes, each of which is the “place” of a basic emotion. As performers move from one box to the next, they must instantly change their emotional expression from, say, karuna (sadness or compassion) to bibhasta (disgust), or raudra (rage), or snnsara (love). But these words are not the key- each rasa is an entire range of feelings clustered around an emotional core; a flavoring and savoring of emotions, rather than anything fixed or “texted”.

The ultimate aim of the exercise is to help performers compose, control, embody, and express emotions as nimbly as athletes are able to rest on the sidelines and then, when asked to play, plunge into the game with full intensity. Antonin Artaud once called for actors to be“athletes of the emotions,”and this is what the rasaboxes exercise trams them to become.
But this kind of exploration and training is not the only thing workshops are good for. Workshops maybe used to dig up materials from personal, histoncal, or other sources and then find ways to express these in actions and interactions. These materials may find their way into actual aesthetic or therapeutic performances. Or they may remain inside the workshop, a means of exploration only. In New Age venues such as Esalen or Naropa institutes, workshops focus on meditation, whole-body healing, and the integration of many different religious and philosophical systems. In the performing arts, workshops cover a very broad range of activities. Some workshops bring together persons from different cultures and/or genres to exchange techniques, ideas, and approaches. Other workshops introduce people to particular skills or techniques. Probably the most prevalent kind of workshop is used to “open people up” to new experiences, helping them recognize and develop their own possibilities. (L2) Workshops have become popular in business and as recreation. Some workshops, often sponsored by businesses, help people acquire certain social skills such as learning how to be at ease in public or how to assert oneself without being overly aggressive, and so on. Plainly, the difference between training and workshop is blurry. Generally, workshops look toward ''the new” both personally and artistically.

Many activities are “workshopped” before they are produced. To workshop something is to produce a prototype or experimental model. This is true not only in the arts but across a wide range of activities. For example, in auto manufacturing, new car models built in prototype by teams pooling resources in an atmosphere of workshop. Designers and engineers play around with new ideas leading to the making of a single prototype. The prototype is built not on the assembly line, but on an individual basis. Of course, such a ''new car” is not really wholly new. A prototype combines already proven engineering and design along with what is really new. But sometimes, auto companies go far out, trying to imagine what a “car of the future” would be. Such a vehicle is called a “concept car.” Sometimes it is not even really finished. It may have a very advanced exterior design but no comparable motor.
?
But by means of concept cars auto manufacturers can familiarize them- selves and their customers with possibilities.(P200) Often elements from a concept car will find their way into the proto- type, which, in turn, serves as the basis for what comes off the assembly line. The process goes from workshop (concept car) to rehearsal (prototype) to production (performance). Similarly, in the performing arts, the workshop phase is where possibilities that may never be performed in public are explored. Only when a project achieves a certain level of solidity is it moved out of the workshop and into rehearsals.


Architects Lawrence Halprin (1916- ) and Jim Burns (1926-94), working closely with Lawrence's wife, choreographer Anna Halprin (1920- ), developed a collective creative workshop process they called the “RSVP Cycles” (see Halprin and Burns box, see figure 7.11). The RSVP Cycles are both a theory of the workshop process and a very useful technique;
(L2)
Lawrence Halprin (1916- ): American architect who, with his wife, dancer Anna Halprin (1920- ), and fellow architect Jim Bums (1926-94), developed a set of workshop processes known as the RSVP Cycles.

Resources - all the subjective and objective material used in the creative process. These include space, people, money, things, etc.; and objectives, feelings, fantasies, open and hidden agendas, etc.
Scores - what I have termed the proto-performance: scenarios, instructions, plans. Scores can be either open or closed. A closed score controls the action; an open score allows for a variety of options.
Valuaction - where the group considers feedback about the ongoing creative process. Scores are revised on the basis of the feedback. Halprin and Burns coined the term “valuaction” to emphasize the action aspect of the feed-back. Scores are revised not just by talking about what happened but by means of new actions.
Performance - the most optimal outcome possible using the scores within the given circumstances.
(P201)
RSVP Cycles: A workshop technique developed by Anna Halprin, Lawrence Halprin, and Jim Barns. RSVP is an acronym for Resources, Scores, Valuaction, Performance.

In the Halprin-Burns method, the RSVP cycle is repeated several times during workshops. There is no right place to start. The group may enter the cycle at any of its nodes. Nor is the performance phase necessarily a public performance. Often the performance is for members of the workshop only. At some point, a public may or may not be invited to experience the results of the workshop. This kind of workshop is not designed primarily to find materials out of which public performances are made. The primary objective of this kind of workshop is self-discovery and/or the building and solidifying of a creative group or team.
Insofar as workshops are where new ways of doing things are explored and resistances to new knowledge are identified and dealt with, they are similar to initiation rites. As discussed in chapter 3, van Gennep called initiations “rites of passage” because by means of an initiation rite a person passes from one social identity to another. According to van Gennep's theory, initiation rites consist of three phases: separation, the liminal or “in between” phase, and reintegration. During initiations, persons leave their ordinary lives behind (separation) , undergo ordeals by means of which old behaviors are erased and new behaviors and knowledge learned (liminal phase), and emerge reborn as new or at least profoundly changed beings ready to rejoin their society but at a new level of responsibility (reintegration).

Workshop participants follow a similar path by isolating themselves from their ordinary lives, putting aside old habits, delving into themselves, and learning new ways of doing things. (L2) As in many initiations, the journey is not undertaken alone. A group sustains individual efforts just as individual contributions strengthen the group.
If a workshop is successful, participants re-emerge as changed beings. Sometimes these changes are minor, sometimes fundamental. For a workshop to succeed, the participants must do the hard work of not only mastering new skills (training) but opening themselves up to others and to new ideas and practices . This is not easy. But once participants are able to be receptive and vulnerable, they are ready to grow and change. Workshop and training may overlap in function, but they are experienced very differently. Training is a long, slow, repetitive, immersive process . Workshops are relatively brief, intense, and suddenly transformative. Some workshops use “ordeals” as a way of breaking down resistance to learning and as a way of incorporating new knowledge into the body. Fasting, long hours, strict discipline, and difficult psychophysical exercises are just some of the techniques used to push people beyond their ordinary limits

(c)Richard Schechner "performance Studies"

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2000年01月05日

Restoration of behavior

Restoration of behavior
Let us examine the notion of restored behavior more closely. We all perform more than we realize. As noted, daily life, ceremonial life, and artistic life consist largely of routines, habits, and rituals; and the recombination of already behaved behaviors. What's “new,” “original,” “shocking” or “avant-garde” is mostly either a different combination of known behaviors or the displacement of a behavior from where it is acceptable or expected to a venue or occasion where it is not expected. Thus, for example, nakedness caused a stir in the performing arts when it first was used in a widespread way in the 1960s. But why the shock, why was nudity new? Simply because the nakedness took place in “high-art” live-performance venues. Previously people saw naked bodies only at home or in gymnasium shower rooms. Naked performers were seen only in striptease shows. But this prohibition applied only to live naked bodies. Art museums were full of representations of naked bodies. The 田over・for this nakedness was that the art displays were presumed to be non-erotic. Of course, in many cultures nakedness is the norm. In others, such as Japan, it has long been acceptable in certain public circumstances and forbidden in others. By the year 2000 no one in any Western metropolitan venue could get a rise out of spectators or critics by performing naked. But don't try it in Kabul.
The habits, rituals, and routines of life are restored behaviors. Restored behavior is living behavior treated as a film director treats a strip of film. These strips of behavior can be rearranged or reconstructed; they are independent of the causal systems (personal, social, political, technological, etc.) that brought them into existence. They haキ,,e a life of their own. The original “truth” or “source” of the behavior may not be known, or may be lost, ignored, or contradicted - even while that truth or source is being honored. How the strips of behavior were made, found, or developed maybe unknown or concealed; elaborated; distorted by myth and tradition. Restored behavior can be of long duration as in ritual performances or of short duration as in fleeting gestures such as waving goodbye.
Restored behavior is the key process of every kind of performing, in everyday life, in healing, in ritual, in play, and in the arts. Restored behavior is “out there,” separate from “me.” To put it in personal terms, restored behavior is “me behaving as if' I were someone else,” or “as I am told to do,” or ''as I have learned.” Even if I feel myself wholly to be my- self, acting independently, only a little investigating reveals that the units of behavior that comprise “me” were not invented by “me.” Or, quite the opposite, I may experience being “beside myself,” “not myself,” or “taken over” as in trance. The fact that there are multiple “me's” in every person is not a sign of derangement but the way things are. The ways one performs one's selves are connected to the ways people perform others in dramas, dances, and rituals. In fact, if people did not ordinarily come into contact with their multiple selves, the art of acting and the experience of trance possession would not be possible. Most performances, in daily life and otherwise, do not have a single author. Rituals, games, and the performances of everyday life are authored by the collective “Anonymous” or the “Tradition.” Individuals given credit for inventing rituals or games usually turn out to be synthesizers, recombiners, compilers, or editors of already practiced actions.
Restored behavior includes a vast range of actions. In fact, all behavior is restored behavior - all behavior consists of recombining bits of previously behaved behaviors. Of course, most of the time people aren't aware that they are doing any such thing. People just “live life.” Performances are marked, framed, or heightened behavior separated out from just “living life” restored restored behavior, if you will. However, for my purpose here, it is not necessary to pursue this doubling. It is enough to define restored behavior as marked, framed, or heightened. Restored behavior can be me・at another time or psychological state - for example, telling the story of or acting out a celebratory or traumatic event. Restored behavior can bring into play non-ordinary reality as in the Balinese trance-dance enacting the struggle between the demoness Rangda and the Lion-god Barong (see figure 2.4) . Restored behavior can be actions marked off by aesthetic convention as in theatre, dance, and music. It can be actions reified into the “rules of the game,” “'etiquette,” or diplomatic “protocol” - or any other of the myriad, known beforehand actions of life. These vary enormously from culture to culture. Restored behavior can be a boy not shedding tears when jagged leaves slice the inside of his nostrils during a Papua New Guinea initiation; or the formality of a bride and groom during their wedding ceremony. Because it is marked, framed, and separate, restored behavior can be worked on, stored and recalled, played with, made into something else, transmitted, and transformed.
Restored behavior is symbolic and reflexive (see Geertz box). Its meanings need to be decoded by those in the know This is not a question of high'' versus ''low・culture. A sports fan knows the rules and strategies of the game, the statistics of key players, the standings, and many other historical and technical details. Ditto for the fans of rock bands. Some- times the knowledge about restored behavior is esoteric, privy to only the initiated. Among Australian Native Peoples, the outback itself is full of significant rocks, trails, water holes, and other markings that form a record of the actions of mythical beings. Only the initiated know the relationship between the ordinary geography and the sacred geography. To become conscious of restored behavior is to recognize the process by which social processes in all their multiple forms are transformed into theatre. Theatre not in the limited sense of enactments of dramas on stages (which, after all, is a practice that until it became very widespread as part of colonialism belonged to relatively few cultures), but in the broader sense outlined in chapter 1 . Performance in the restored behavior sense means never for the first time, always for the second to nth time: twice-behaved behavior.


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