EXERCISES  A

1
(1) If it had been not for your advice, I would have lost a lot of money.
→ had not been

(2) If it were for a time machine, I could travel freely in time.
→ With / If I had

(3) I wish I can speak more fluent English.f
→ could

(4) I hope that there are twenty-five hours in a day
→ wish, were
※hopeは実現可能な事柄に対して用います。

(5) At the time, I felt as if someone had been watching me.
→ were watching

括弧と記号について
[    ]
言い換え可能
  必ずしも同じ意味とは限りません。
  どの部分が言い換え可能なのかが、分かりづらいところは、下線を引きました。
(   )
省略可能

2
(1) 若いときに楽器を1つ習っておけばよかったと思う。
【解答】
 I wish I had learned (how) to play a musical instrument when I was young [a child].
(別解1)
 I regret that I did not learn [not havig learned] (how) to play a musical instrument when I was young [a child].
(別解2)
 ( I feel [I think] (that) ) I should have learned (how) to play a musical instrument when I was young [a child].

(2) 何かすてきなことが起こらないかしら。
【解答】
 I wish something wonderful [nice / marvelous] would [could] happen to me.
(別解1)
 I hope (that) something wonderful will happen [happens] to me.
(別解2)
 I wish I could be lucky.

(3) 私もあなたくらい車の運転が上手だといいのですが。
【解答】
 I wish I could drive as well as you [well like you].
(別解1)
 I wish I were [was] as good a driver as you (are).
(別解2)
 I wish I were as good at driving as you (are).

(4) 今の携帯電話はたくさんの機能があってとても便利だが、家に置いてきてしまったら、その日一日何もできない気がする。
[前半]
【解答】
 Mobile phones [Cell phones] today [these days / nowadays] are very useful [hlpful / handy / convenient] with many functions.
(別解1)
 Cellphones today are very useful because they have (so) many functions.
(別解2)
 Cellphones today, which have so many functions that they are very useful.
(別解3)
 Cellphones today have so many function that they are very useful.
(別解4)
 You can (easily) do a lot of things with [using] cellphones, so they are very useful. 
(別解5)
 Cellphones today enable you [allow you / make it possible for you] to do (so) many things, so they are very useful.
(別解6)
 It is very convenient to use mobile phones today, which have many functions.
[後半]
【解答】
  ..., so I feel as if [feel like / feel that] I cannot so anything all day [all through the day / for the rest of the day / the whole day] if I leave mine [my mobile phone] at home.
(別解)
 .... Therefore, you would feel as if you were not able to do anything all through the day if you forgot to bring yours [your mobile phone] with you.

(5) 脚の骨折がなければ、ウィリアムはすばらしい運動選手になっていただろう。
【解答】
 If he had not broken his leg, William could [would probably] have become a great athlete [a great aportsperson].
(別解)
 If William had not broken his leg, he could be a great athlete now.


EXERCISES  B

(1) 人間には、たとえ経験していなくても、まるで経験したかのように感じることを可能にする想像力が備わっている。
【解答】
 Humans [Human beings] have imagination, which enables [allows] them to feel as if [as though] they have experienced what they cannot actually experience [have not actually experienced].
(別解1)
 We have imagination through which we can feel (that) we have experienced what we cannot actually experience [have not actually experienced].
(別解2)
 We are imaginative enough to feel (that) we have experienced something that in fact we cannot [have not].
(別解3)
 We have enough imagination to feel as if we are experiencing something, even though this is not the case.
(別解4)
 We can feel (that) we have experienced things (that / which) we have not actually done through the power of imagination [through [because of] our imagination].

(2) 自分の意見が批判されると頭に血がのぼり、自分自身が攻撃されたように感じ、相手が何を言っているのかもよくわからなくなる。
【解答】
 When [If] someone [somebody] criticizes your opinions [opinion], you get upset [angry], you feel as if [as though] they were [are] (personally) attacking you, and you even have difficulty understanding [even struggle to understand] what the other person is  talking about.
(別解1)
 When [If] your ideas are criticized, you cannot stay calm and feel (that) you yourself are being attacked, so you become unable to even understand what the other person is saying.
(別解2)
 When someone challenges our opinions, we cannot keep calm, feel (that) they are looking down on us, and lose sight of what is being said. 

(3) 言語が私たちの日常生活にどのような役割を果たしているのか、言語がない世界とはどのようなものなのか、などどはめったに考えない。
【解答】
 We [People] hardly ever [rarely / seldom] think about the role (that / which)  language plays in our daily lives [in our everyday lives / in daily life / in everyday life], or what a world without language would be like [what if there were no language in the world].
(別解1)
 We [People] hardly ever think about [wonder] what (kind of) role language plays [what (kind of) role language has / how important a role language plays] in our daily lives or how we would live without language [if it were not for language].
(別解2)
 We seldom think about how language influences our daily lives or what a world where there were no language woud be.

(4) 初対面の人物とほんの少し言葉を交わしただけで、その人とまるで何十年も前からつきあいがあったかのような錯覚に陥ることがある。
【解答】
 When [As soon as / After] you talk for just a while [talk for a short time / talk only a little / talk just a little / exchange just a few words] with someone you are meeting for the first time [you have never met before / you have just met], you sometimes begin [start] to feel [feeling] as if [as though] you have known [had known] them [that person / each other] for decades [for many years].
(別解1)
 After only having a short chat [a short conversation / a brief chat / a brief conversation / a little communication] with someone you have never met before, you sometimes feel like [feel that] you have known them for decades [for many years].
(別解2)
 Exchanging just a few words with someone you do not know ometimes makes you feel as if [as though] they have been [had been] a friend for decades.
(別解3)
 You may meet someone for the first time, talk for a short while with them, and feel as if you have known them for decades.

(5) アメリカの政治、経済、また社会問題について、私は気恥ずかしくなるほど何も知らなかった。日本にいたとき、もっと新聞など読んでおくべきだったなと、大いに後悔したものである。
【解答】
 I was very [really] embarrassed when I realized [found out / learned] how little I knew about [how ignorant I was of / that I knew nothing about] the politics, economics, or social problems in the U.S.  I wished I had read more newspapers and magazines (about the U.S.) before going there [before I had gone [went] there / before coming here / before arrving here].
(別解1)
 I was very [really] embarrassed to find [to learn] (that) I knew little [alomost nothing] about the politics, economics, or social problems in the U.S.  I wished I had read more (about the U.S.) in newspapers or magazines before I had gone there [I had gone [went] there / coming here / arrving here].
(別解2)
 It was embarrassing to find (that) I was rather ignorant of political, economic, or social situations in the U.S.  I wished I had learned more about the country from newspaper or magazines before going there [I had gone [went] there].

【Futher Exercise】 
 If I could use a time machine, I would return to the time of Shakespeare to witness England's Golden Age, which saw the flowering of poetry, music, literature and exploration abroad.  The English language was in its richest phase of development, with Shakespeare coining thousand of new words and pharases.  All the excitement of this social and linguistic development could be experienced at the Globe Theater in London, where I could see Shakespeare himself performing in one of his own plays.