1993年07月

サポテ

サポテ名の果実
図説 世界のくだもの366日事典 天野秀二 講談社
 
熱帯の果実の中でサポテの名のつくものには、サポテ、サポーテ、ミドリサポテ、メキシコサポジラ、シロサポテ などがあるが、カキノキ科、アカテツ科、ミカン科と品種品目がちがっていても、通称はサポテの名で通っている。これはサポテと呼ばれるもののうちアカテツ科に属するものが多いため、アカテツの学名サポータが、通称になったものらしい。
○カキノキ科のサポテ 果実の見かけはカキににている。メキシコ原産の果樹、果実の味は、芳香甘味で生食とケーキに使用する。東南アジア地区では、フィッリピンで栽培している。
○アカテツ科のサポテ 一番有名なのはチュウインガムノキで知られるサポジラ、呼び名はサポテでもサポーテでも通用する。同族のミドリサポテ、メキシコサポテもやはり通称はサポテでまかりとうる。
○ミカン科のサポテ オレンジ味で味はアンズににて、英名はホワイトサポテとよばれる。

ホワイトサポテ

ホワイトサポテにめど 和歌山県園試
日本農業新聞 
和歌山県果樹園芸試験場は、すでに普及にうつしたチェリモヤに続き、2年前からホワイトサポテを導入、国産化開発をめざして試験栽培をすすめているが、今年はじめて結実し、このほど収穫した果実を調査した結果、品質のよいおいしい果実がえられた。同試験場は、トロピカルフルーツの国産開発第2弾として、県内各地に試作園をもうけてその適応性を調べていく。
ホワイトサポテの経済栽培をめざした挑戦は、国内はじめてだけに、まず同県内果樹産地の気候や土壌で露地栽培ができ、すぐれた果実がとれるかどうかを見極めるため、2年前に宮崎県の植物園から20年樹を譲り受けて同試験場内に移植。 これにカルフォルニアから導入した有望7品種を高接ぎして試作を続けるとともに、接ぎ木や挿し木など、苗木の繁殖法の試験をすすめてきた。
その結果、最初に高接ぎした木が昨年8月に開花結実、6月に収穫果実を調査、試食したところ、平均果重170グラム 糖度17%のおいしい果実がえられた。
一方、優良品種を選抜するためにあらかじめ育成した台木に、2年前にカルフォルニアから導入した40品種を接ぎ木、苗木の育成をすすめ、同場試験園に各種2樹づつ栽培しているが、この方はまだ未結実。育成した苗木を、県内の果樹産地で地域適応性と品種選抜をかねて現地試験を行い、早く結論を出そうと、各農業改良普及所に試作希望農家のとりまとめを依頼した。
ホワイトサポテは、県内では栽培例がなく、カルフォルニアから少量輸入され、「和歌山でも露地栽培できればと期待している。」(同試の米本仁巳主査研究員)
ホワイトサポテ 原産地は、メキシコから中央アメリカにかけての高地で、ミカン類とは縁遠いが、ミカン科の植物で、常緑性の亜熱帯果樹。成木は零下5度に耐えるといわれる。別名メキシカンアップル、またはサポテブランコと呼ばれ、原産地のアステカ人は、「眠気を催すおいしい果物」とよんでいる。
Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen 
syn. M. zapotilla (Jacq.) Gilly, Manilkara achras (Mill.) Fosberg, Achras zapota (L.),Sapota achras Mill., Sapota zapotilla (Jacq.) Coville 
Sapotaceae
There are many common names: 
Sapodilla, Chicle, Nispero, Chicozapote, Chico sapote,
Chiku, Dilly, Zapote, Zapotillo, Naseberry
NewCROP has Sapodilla information at: 
Sapodilla: A Potential Crop For Subtropical Climates柚ichael V. Mickelbart
Magness J.R. et al. 1971. Food and feed crops of the United States.
And outside links to more Sapodilla info:
SAPODILLA "FRUIT FACTS" (Fruit Facts are a series of publications of the the California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc. that contain information on individual fruits,including botanical identification, description and culture notes based on California research, and characteristics of cultivars). 
More Manilkara information: 
last update July 8, 1997 
Sapodilla
Naseberry, Nispero
Sapotaceae Manilkara zapota van Royen, Syn: Manilkara achras (Mill.) Fosberg 
Source: Magness et al. 1971
The tree is a tropical evergreen, native to the American tropics, but now grown indooryards and small commercial plantings in many tropical countries. The tree becomes large, with smooth, thick, shiny leaves. The bark contains a milky latex, chicle, obtained bv tapping. Chicle is the base of chewing gum. Fruits are up to 3.5 inches in diameter, flattened at the stem end, globose-conic in shape. The skin is thin and scurfy. Flesh is yellowish brown, tender, granular, and sweet. Fruit structure is
somewhat similar to apple, with a central core of 10 to 12 cells and a similar number of seeds. Flowers may open and fruits ripen over a long period in the tropics. Older trees have survived exposure to 26F., or even lower without serious damage. Sapodillas are not grown commercially in the U.S., but individual trees may be found in subtropical areas. Fruits are marketed locally in Puerto Rico. 
Last update July 8, 1997 Ben Alkire
Sapotaceae 
   1.Achras sapota L.  (アカテツ科)
   2.Bumelia celastrina H.B.K. 
   3.Bumelia mayana Standley 
   4.Bumelia obtusifolia subsp. buxifolia (Roemer & Schult.) Miq. 
   5.Bumelia parviflora (Lundell) Lundell 
   6.Bumelia pleistochasia J. D. Smith 
   7.Bumelia retusa Sw. 
   8.Bumelia spiniflora A. DC. 
   9.Bumelia stevensonii (Standl.) Stearn 
  10.Chrysophyllum cainito L. 
  11.Chrysophyllum mexicanum Brandegee ex Standley 
  12.Dipholis minutiflora Pittier 
  13.Dipholis salicifolia (L.) A. DC. 
  14.Dipholis stevensonii Standley 
  15.Manilkara chicle (Pittier) Gilly 
  16.Manilkara staminodella Gilly 
  17.Manilkara striata Gilly 
  18.Manilkara zapota (L.) v. Royen 
  19.Mastichodendron belizense (Lundell) Cronq. 
  20.Mastichodendron capiri (A. DC.) Cronq. 
  21.Mastichodendron foetidissimum (Jacq.) Cronq. 
  22.Peteniodendron belizense Lundell 
  23.Pouteria amygdalina (Standley) Baehni 
  24.Pouteria campechiana (H.B.K.) Baehni 
  25.Pouteria durlandii (Standley)Baehni 
  26.Pouteria hypoglauca (Standley) Baehni 
  27.Pouteria izabalensis (Standley)Baehni 
  28.Pouteria lundellii (Standley) L. O. Williams 
  29.Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronq. 
  30.Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H.E. Moore & Stearn 
  31.Pouteria unilocularis (J. D. Smith) Baehni 
 Sapote, White
Mamey zapote
Sapotaceae Calocarpum sapota (Jacq.) Merr. 
Sapote, Green
Injerto
C. viride Pettier 
Source: Magness et al. 1971
The white sapote tree is a large - up to 80 feet - tropical evergreen with leaves up to 12 inches long by 4 inches wide. Fruits are ovoid or elliptical, 3 to 6 inches long, with usually one large seed. The fruit peel is thin, scurfy and roughened. Flesh is red or reddish brown, firm and somewhat granular, with a rich, sweet flavor.
The green sapote tree is similar to the white, but with smaller leaves. Fruits are similar in size and other characteristics to the white sapote. 
Season, bloom to maturity: 6 to 8 months.
Production in U. S.: No data. Dooryard trees only, 
Use: Fresh eating, preserves.
Part of fruit consumed: Inner pulp. 
Last update June 28, 1996 bha
Calocarpum sapote (Jacq.) Merr.
Sapotaceae
Mamey sapote, White sapote
We have information from several sources:
Tropical Fruits柚ary Lamberts and Jonathan H. Crane
Magness, J.R., G.M. Markle, C.C. Compton. 1971. Food and feed crops of the United States. Interregional Research Project IR-4, IR Bul. 1 (Bul. 828 New Jersey Agr. Expt.Sta.).
last update October 8, 1997 by aw
White Sapote 
White sapote (Casimiroa edulis, Rutaceae) is an evergreen medium-size tree native to the highlands of Mexico and Central America. The fruits are green-yellow, with a thin skin and a creamy white-yellow sweet flesh (Morton 1987). Selected clones are available, mainly in Southern California (Chambers 1984; Morton 1987), and some effort has been made to introduce the species into New Zealand and Australia (Dawes and Martin 1988; George et al. 1988). A small commercial plantation (16 hectares) with
selected cultivars is being grown in Carpenteria near Santa Barbara, California and the fruits can be found as an exotic item in the United States and Australia. Early tests in the Israeli Negev Desert demonstrated partial tolerance to salinity (Nerd et al. 1992). In autumn 1992 and spring of 1993, 21 grafted clones were planted in Qetura and Besor; 16 were introduced as bud-wood from Fallbrook, Southern California (from R.R. Chambers orchard), while the remaining five were propagated as grafted bud-wood from our own selections. Nine replications from each clone were planted in three blocks at each location. In 1995 some clones started to flower and set fruits in these two locations. 
WHITE SAPOTE 
Botany
The white sapote, Casimiroa edulis Llave & Lex, Rutaceae, has attracted interest among rare fruit growers and orchardists in California. The genus Casimiroa contains 5 or 6 species (Thompson 1972; Morton 1987). Among these are three little-known shrubs or small trees from Mexico, C. pubescens Ramirez, C. pringlei Engl., and C. watsonii Engl. Another species, C. emarginata Standley & Steyerin, was described in 1944 from a single specimen found in Guatemala (Morton 1987). The C. sapota Oerst, matasano, is very similar to and often confused with C. edulis, along with C. tetrameria Millsp.,the wooly-leaved white sapote. Although these last two species sometimes hybridize with C. edulis, their flavor is considered inferior (Thompson 1972). C. edulis, C.sapota, and C. tetrameria are found in central Mexico. Their range is broad, extending down into Central 
America as far as Costa Rica. The white sapote, C. edulis, remains the 
preferred fruit of the genus due to its delicious flavor and wide appeal. 
In its native habitat, trees are found at altitudes of 750 to 2,700 m. They do not flourish in the hot, tropical lowlands (Morton 1987), but are cultivated around the world in subtropical areas and regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. The trees have been planted in the northern part of South America, the Caribbean region, Spain, Portugal, Southern France, and Italy. They are grown commercially on a small scale in New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa. White sapote have not been successfully
grown in the Philippines, but have been cultivated in other islands of the East Indies(Morton 1987). There are small plantings in Florida, Hawaii, and experimental plantings in three different regions in Israel (Nerd et al. 1990). The white sapote has grown well in California since the early 1800s (Schneider 1986). It is thought to be first introduced by Franciscan monks along with figs, olives, and grapes (Thompson 1972). Some cultivars have fruited well as far north as San Francisco (Thompson 1972).
White sapotes are medium to large-sized, fast growing trees with aggressive spreading roots that help them withstand periods of drought. Mature trees can reach 15 to 18 m in height and produce 900 kg (2,000 lb.) of fruit per year. Thompson, (1972) reported a tree of 'Chestnut' produced nearly 2,700 kg (6,000 lb.) of fruit in 1971 in Vista, California. 
Grafted trees remain smaller and develop a better canopy than seedlings. 
Horticulture
The author first planted a few white sapote trees at Quail Mountain in 1983. In 1986,190 two-year-old grafted trees, representing 18 cultivars, were planted approximately 6 m apart (346/ha). The trees were drip fertigated weekly, for the first two years,and bi-monthly thereafter. After the trees were two years old, yearly top dressings of goat manure were added to the base of each tree and the trees were foliar fed with seaweed solution in the summer and fall. Very light skirt pruning is practiced
annually.
The first cultivars to fruit were 'Suebelle' in 1988 followed by 'Lemon Gold' in 1989.The first frost of the decade occurred in the winter of 1988 (29ー to 30ーF; -1.7ー to -1.1ーC), followed by another series of frosts in 1989 (lows to 28ーF; -2.2ーC). These frosts injured the young growing shoots and caused fruit to drop, but there was otherwise no severe damage and the trees recovered rapidly in the spring. In December of 1990, a 
devastating "freeze of the century" struck California. Low temperatures in the sapote orchard were 20ーF (-6.7ーC) followed by 21ーF (-6.1ーC) and then two weeks of 25 to 28ーF (-3.9ー to -2.2ーC) nights. The cultivars most susceptible to freeze damage were killed below the graft, although most survived to come back from the roots (Table 1). 
In California, the trees do well on well drained sandy loam or clay soils. They grow and fruit well on the deep sands of Florida, but may become chlorotic on oolitic limestone (Morton 1987). The young branches are bright green but turn gray and become very strong with age. Trunks of older trees can become buttressed. Leaves are shiny above, glabrous below, and palmately compound with 3 to 5 pointed leaflets. 
The small flowers are 5-petaled, creamy white with a greenish tinge, and occur in panicles of 5 to 100 in number. In California, many cultivars bloom in spring, summer,and fall. Blooming time varies among the cultivars which prolongs fruit harvest. Most trees have two successive blooming flushes, separated by several months. The panicles are usually held terminally or in bases of the branch shoots or axils of mature leaves. The flowers sometimes are cauliflorous (Batten 1984). If bees are in the area,pollination is no problem, but many flowers and immature fruits abort naturally. For maximum fruit size, the fruit should be thinned. Fruits ripen gradually about 4 to 5 months after pollination occurs. On most cultivars, the fruit remains green when ripe.
The fruit is ripe when the skin yields to slight pressure. Fruits are spherical to slightly oval in shape and are 6 to 11 x 6 to 12 cm in size. Fruits have a cream to yellowish custard-like pulp with a melting flavor of banana, peach, and pear. Each fruit has one to four seeds which resemble those of a large orange or grapefruit and are reportedly fatally toxic if eaten (Morton 1987). The fruit quality is quite good in coastal areas of California (Chandler 1950). 
Fruit should be hand harvested as many varieties bruise easily. The fruit may be harvested early, which may be an advantage if the fruit is to be shipped for the fresh market. The fruit is high in ethylene so postharvest handling procedures should avoid prolonged storage. Separation of fruit or wrapping individually may retard ripening.
The fruit lasts up to two weeks when ripe, under refrigeration. Fruit should be packaged in a manner that avoids bruising. Many new packaging methods are being used for other crops, such as Asian pears, that may be easily adapted to the sapote.
Cultivars with thicker skin are needed. The fruit is liked by most all who try it, so it may "market itself" once it becomes more readily available to the general public. 
White Sapote
  Batten, D.J. 1979. White sapote, p. 171-174. In: Tropical tree fruits for Australia. Queensland Dept. of Primary Industries Information Series, Australia.
  Martin, F.W., C.W. Campbell, and R.M. Ruberte. 1987. Perennial edible fruits of the tropics: An inventory USDA Agr. Handb. 642, Washington, DC.
  Morton, J.F. 1987. Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, 20534 S.W. 92nd. Ct., Miami, FL.
Neal, M.C. 1965. In gardens of Hawaii. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, HI.
Nerd, A., J. Aronson, and Y. Mizrahi. 1990. Introduction and domestication of rare and wild fruit and nut trees for desert areas, p. 355-363. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.). Advances in new crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Roecklein, J.C. and P.S. Leung. 1987. A profile of economic plants. Transaction  Books, New Brunswick, NJ.
Schneider, E. 1986. Uncommon fruits and vegetables. A common sense guide. Harper & Row, New York.
Mamey Sapote [Calocarpum sapota (Jacq.) Merr.] 
Dade County mamey trees are grafted on seedling rootstocks. Mamey sapote has its origins in Mexico and Central America. The major cultivars at this time are 'Magana' and 'Pantin'. Minor cultivars are 'Tazumal' and 'Cuban No. 2'. The mamey sapote crop has an annual estimated value of $1.5 million.
There are no major insect pests of mamey sapote, though Cuban May beetles (Phyllophaga bruneri Chapin) and green leafhoppers (Empoasca sp.) cause occasional damage. There are no important pathogens, but Phytophthora sp. is suspected.
Recent research at the TREC has been on grafting techniques and cultivar selection and evaluation. Local growers are also active in the cultivar selection and evaluation process. 
Touxiaのブログ
2010年6月25日開始
植物について あれこれと書いています。いつの間にか3年が過ぎました。ニンゲン様の都合だけでなく植物の都合もかけたらいいな。植物をめぐる 周辺 についても 書き始めました。 Touxiaのブログ
大きな国で
ちょっと違うよと怒鳴ってます
テーマ別にブログを開設


うろたえる紙魚
ブログ「大きな国で」の資料庫と思って書いています。本の感想や気に入った言葉をつづります。でも最近は 今の心境を一番 表していそうです

食のイノベーション
2014年4月15日からはじめました

サルがダーウィンになった
進化論について勉強します

モグラのナミダ
DVDや優酷を見た感想を書いています。評価の基準は ナミダです。ナミダが出たもんが勝ち。悲しくて泣き 嬉しくて泣いています。

村上春樹の鼻毛
ムラカミハルキについてあれこれをつづる。

オンチなジャガイモ
中国語の勉強用メモ

微笑みの国で
雲南から チェンマイに 出稼ぎに行った時に書きました。でも今は中国。微笑みの国で『なにか』が起こった時に書いています。

バラの花につつまれて
バラの品種など・・・

大きな国で 画像
ライブドアーは画像がアップできないので、これでやっています。

おもしろすぎるぜ中国で
元祖 楽天でのブログ;スパムがおおすぎて休止。古いブログが読めます。

私のホームページ
このHPは 中国で見ることができるようになりました。ありがとう。

中国版Twitter
新浪微博 日本的老土

中国では できませんが国境を越えたらできるようになった Twitter
私は touxia で登録しています。

スカイプは tsuchishita です。

Facebook もやっていますよ。接続は難しいですが。

どうぞお寄りください。
Touxia

Amazonライブリンク
アクセスカウンター
  • 今日:
  • 昨日:
  • 累計:

アクセスカウンター

    カテゴリ別アーカイブ
    プロフィール

    touxia

    最新コメント
    最新トラックバック
    月別アーカイブ
    記事検索
    QRコード
    QRコード
    • ライブドアブログ