May 12, 2009

Title : Complete Conditioning for Swimming
Authors : David Salo, Scott A. Riewald
Publisher : Human Kinetics Publishers(June 30, 2008)




著者の Dave SaloUniversity of Southern California のヘッドコーチ
これまでに
などを育てた。

もう一人の著者、Scott Riewald は US オリンピック委員会の performance technologist であり、また CSCS(Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist)の認定専門家でもある。

内容は水泳のコンディショニング。書籍と連動した DVD も付属。amazon で評価が高かったので購入。

introduction によると、本書の対象読者は
  • all swimmers in mind(fitness swimmer, top ranked age-group swimmer, triathlete, masters swimmer)
  • coach
  • swim parent


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Testing for Swimming Fitness
Chapter 2. Warming Up and Cooling Down
Chapter 3. Tailoring Training for Specific Strokes and Events
Chapter 4. Building Endurance
Chapter 5. Training for Core Stability
Chapter 6. Developing Explosive Power
Chapter 7. Enhancing Flexibility for Better Strokes
Chapter 8. Preventing, Coping With, and Returning From Injury
Chapter 9. Nutrition and Hydration for Swimmers
Chapter 10. Creating a Strength and Conditioning Program
Chapter 11. Year-Round Sample Programs


個人メモ

エクササイズは dryland と in-water の両方が含まれる。
紹介されているエクササイズの半分程度はDVD(80 min)で実際に動きを確認することが出来る。
本を開きながらではなく、映像を見ながらエクササイズしたいという人(=自分)も助かる。

ドライランドトレーニングはハードに毎日練習する選手コースの人だけのものと思っている人は、この本を一度読んでみるとよい。泳ぐ以外のトレーニングの様々なメリットがいろいろな角度から説明されている。

特に、マスターズに出場する年齢層の人は、プールの中でウォームアップとクールダウンをやる以外にコンディショニングに関してほぼ何もやっていない人が多い気がするので、そのような人が本書の一番のオーディエンスと思う。

全般的に平易な英語でかかれているので、解剖学・生化学系の記述以外は問題なく読めるはず。

本書は水泳のコンディショニングに関しての本ではあるが、著者達のトレーニング全般に関する思想が文章にも如実にあらわれていて、"efficiency", "quality" といった言葉が本文中に何度も何度も繰り返される。

なお、紹介文の冒頭は "Swim Stronger and Faster!"

追記

Dave Salo コーチはスイミングマガジン2009年6月号「短期集中連載★米国コーチ研修リポート〜前編〜」でも採り上げられている。
本で受けた印象通り、普段の練習から高速(レースペース)でガンガンとばすメニューをこなすようだ。

エクササイズで必要なもの一覧



以下、本書の簡単なまとめ

introduction

This books shows you how to bring strength training and conditioning into your swimming program and how to do it correctly to enhance performance and prevent injuries.

Two principles that we believe are critical in swimming today
  1. strength and conditioning can help prevent injuries.
  2. strength and conditioning can enhance performance


Chapter 1. Testing for Swimming Fitness

"where you are and what you need to work on" にあたって必要なこと
  • measuring swimming efficiency and efficacy
  • calculating stroke rate and distance per stroke
  • testing the kinetic chain
  • testing performance with in-water tests
Fast swimming is built on
  • efficiency : being able to swim fast while exerting little wasted effort and energy
  • efficacy : the power to produce a result, which in this case means effectively using the forces you generate to get you down the length of the pool.


Chapter 2. Warming Up and Cooling Down

warm-up
prepare the body to race and perform at a high level.
increase muscle and core body temperature

cool-down
starts the recovery process and is essential for getting the body ready for the next practice or the next race.

While time often dictates whether a cool-down is included after training, the cool-down might be as important as the preceding training.

active cool-down: your body will recover more quickly if you perform a moderate-intensity activity rather than sit and wait for the recovery process to happen(passive recovery).

高負荷トレーニング -> 筋肉が酸性に傾く & 乳酸の増加 -> 筋肉のパフォーマンスの低下

Types of Warm-Ups

general warm-up
moderate-intensity activity that uses many of the large-muscle groups in the body to elevate body temperature.

dynamic warm-up
involve movement
designed to improve dynamic flexibility while also keeping the body temperature elevated.
target the specific muscle groups used in  swimming.

static stretching?
stretching before a practice or competition might actually hurt athletic performance.
best performed at the end of a practice as a pert of your cooling down.


Chapter 3. Tailoring Training for Specific Strokes and Events

Swimming Specific Training
training that is focused on doing exactly what is needed to prepare the body to compete.


energy system

anaerobic glycolysis
anaerobic
short-term system(up to 3 minutes)
end product : lactic acid
ex) 100-meter and 200-meter events

aerobic glycolysis
aerobic
long-term(longer than 3 minutes) system
ex) 400 meters and longer

ATP-CP
anaerobic
immediate(0 to 20 seconds) system
CP = creatine phosphate
ex) 50-meter freestyle

long, slow swimming?
Long, slow distance training trains you to swim long and slow.
Our philosophy is to incorporate race-pace and race-rate training --- every day.(= "train to race" program)

quality or quantity?
In our program, we emphasize quality - we train fast every single day.


Chapter 4. Building Endurance

essential building block for future power and strength development
  • develop muscular endurance
  • build a well-developed base of cardiorespiratory conditioning
Endurance can be built in one of two ways:
  1. By Swimming at a constant, moderate intensity for a long period
  2. By Swimming at race paces using high-intensity intervals while using appropriate rest periods to challenge and develop the aerobic energy system
※この本では (2) を採用

著者達がコーチしている USC には distance group はいない。いるのは long sprinter.

long sprinters
their training has as much high-intensity, short-duration training as it does conventional distance training.

We emphasize quality over quantity, fast swimming over completing a certain training volume or a set distance.

Heart Rate  Zone Training

High-intensity training zone
85-100%

Improving cardiorespiratory fitness zone
65-85%
consistent training at the high end of this range is what is recommended for enhancing your racing performance.

Low-intensity cardio zone
55-65%

Cross-Training

merits
  • improve or maintain your physical conditioning
  • build mental breaks into your training
  • maintain conditioning when recovering from an injury
  • help balance the body
  • build strength in muscles important to swimming
  • develop a better overall level of fitness and conditioning
  • add flexibility to your training

considerations
  • fitness can be activity specific. Build into any new activity gradually.
  • don't add cross-training to an already-full training schedule
  • avoid activities that aggravate an existing injury
  • cross-training is not a substitute for swimming


Chapter 5. Training for Core Stability

Balancing and maintaining a streamlined body position are critical in swimming...To achieve this position, you need to have strength and control of the muscles through the middle part of your body(= core).

core stability
incorporates both muscular strength and muscular control

core strength
even the strongest muscles are useless if they are activated at the wrong time or in the wrong order.

Ch.5 のテーマは core strength ではなく core stability

6 merits of Core Stability:
  • maintain a streamlined body position in the water
  • establish a stable base of support that will help you develop a string pull and kick.
  • increase the effectiveness of your kick.
  • generate body roll in freestyle and backstroke.
  • drive your undulation in butterfly and breaststroke.
  • control lateral(=side-to-side) movement of the body.
Kinetic chain
You're only as strong as your weakest link.


Chapter 6. Developing Explosive Power

Plyometrics がメインテーマ
  • exercises and training strategies you can use for developing power and explosiveness.
  • practical ways of transferring that power from the weight room to the pool.
Components of a strength and conditioning program for power

strength and conditioning programs for maximizing swimmers' power should contain three components:

  1. Some strength training using heavy resistance.(Ch. 3)
  2. Plyometric exercises that develop the rate of force, or how quickly the muscles can contract and produce force.(Ch. 6)
  3. Speed-bases strength that uses lower resistances but emphasizes performing the exercises through the greatest range of motion as quickly as possible.(Ch. 6)
Plyometrics and power development

The idea behind plyometrics is that you ask the muscles to contract while lengthening(an eccentric contraction) to decelerate a movement and then quickly shorten(a concentric contraction) to produce another movement, usually in the opposite direction.

Plyometrics takes advantage of two of muscle's unique properties:
  • muscle is elastic
  • muscle has a stretch reflex.


Chapter 7. Enhancing Flexibility for Better Strokes

Muscular function is based on a balance between strength and flexibility. Flexibility training is just as important to your performance as strength training. If you make stretching an integral part of your overall training program, you will start to see results.

Types of flexibility

1. static flexibility
range of motion measured at a joint while maintaining a stationary position.
2. dynamic flexibility
flexibility with movement and can be thought of as the range of motion that's available to you while you're actually swimming.

Which is more important?
Both!

benefits of flexibility
  • Stretching can maintain or increase joint range of motion, allowing for longer and more efficient strokes.
  • Stretching  improves a muscle's ability to generate force and allows for greater force production through a full range of motion.
  • Stretching improves circulation to your muscles.
  • Stretching improves posture both in and out of the water.
  • regular Stretching can help you overcome some of the bad habits you engage in throughout the day.
  • Stretching promotes relaxation.
Stretching guidelines
  • You should stretch at the end of your practice, not before.
  • Perform each stretch two or three times and hold each stretch 20 to 30 seconds.
  • Make stretching a regular part of your routine.
  • Stretch both sides of your body.
  • Stretch within your limits.
  • Stretching should never be painful.


Chapter 8. Preventing, Coping With, and Returning From Injury

Like it or not, injuries and sports go hand in hand, and swimming is no exception. Even though swimming is a non-weight-bearing, low-impact sport, the repetitive nature of the strokes contributes to overuse injuries as well as flexibility and strength imbalances.

types of injuries in swimming
  • Tendinitis
  • ligament sprain
  • muscle strain or pull

Immediate treatment for injuries

PRICE principle
  • Protection
  • Rest
  • Ice
  • Compression
  • Elevation
Cf.) RICE


Activity modifications when injured

an injury is not a free pass to stop your training.


Chapter 9. Nutrition and Hydration for Swimmers

TODO


Chapter 10. Creating a Strength and Conditioning Program

How you can structure your training during the course of a season. Several training principles underlie program design, but the most important thing is having a plan --- knowing your specific goals or those of the swimmers you coach. Know what you want to do and when you want to do it.

Periodization

この本では次の5フェーズに分ける
  1. Preliminary phase
  2. Training phase
  3. Competition phase
  4. Championship phase
  5. Active rest phase


Chapter 11. Year-Round Sample Programs

pull everything together and develop a training plan that is right for you.
you is one of these:
  1. age-group swimmers aged 14 and under
  2. competitive age-group swimmers over 14 years of age
  3. collegiate swimmers
  4. masters swimmers and triathletes
  5. fitness swimmers whose main goal is to maintain fitness.

次の各項目を、上記 1-5に対して解説
  • seasonal training plan(期分け)
  • assumptions and guidelines
  • 各 phase におけるワークアウト例



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