2012ǯ03

ǯȸСɤ˽в񤨤褦

ϿǯΤΥꥨơ󤬤äĹΰꡢǯ٤ǣУ˴Ťͥ2̾ͥפȤɽ줿ʸ3ǯǯɽԤˡˤʤ뤬θ٤ϣǯ˻䤬γĹˤꤤߤƤΤ伫Ȥ2ǯˤʤäդˡͥ̾Σ̾Ф졢ޤȤƸҤΡر缭ŵ٤äȤθλο礭ƶȤ顢ƻϤƱ褦ʴӤ̣äƤ餤Ȼפäϡ޼Խʬ˵ܤǤΩɤʾޤ˰äƤʤߤˡͥΰͣ˷1ǯμȤôƤʤΤǡƱ򶵤ȤϤʤäϣԣϣţɣäιԣ̾Σ̾Ȥơ֥ޤ

ꥨơθ塢ϭǤΣ˷ˡǤȤǯϤ褯ĥä͡ǯԤƤ衣פݤȡƱϡ꤬ȤޤͤϹ⹻夫黳ƴǤĥޤפͽۤ⤷Ƥʤä򤷤դˤƤ줿䤬񤤤Τ¿ɤǤƤ“”ȷƤǤ˽в񤦤Ӥˡ̽˿Ԥȼ´ȶˡδԤ΢ڤʤ褦ˡʤġΤȤ򿴤ͤФʤʤȶפ

ڸﵭۤȤʬäȤKϺǯ1ǯˡɤιȻ˹ʤޤ“ȥץ”ȸƤ٤

ܿͱѸؽԤȡetc.

϶αѲäǤФ“etc.”ȤܸˡȥȥסʻˡȡȥסˤηäƤơŪߤˤʤäƤ뤫Ѹ“etc.”Ϥɤ餫ȸСʸʸѤ뤳Ȥ¿ܤαѸؽԤäѤΤ򤱤̵ۤͤˤäƤϡθˡ顢ְΤĥ򤷤ƤפȤݤ뤫Τʤ

ȤСǯγƬǻȤäѸˡLast summer my friend and I visited Washington, New York, etc.  I bought maple wine, maple syrup, maple butter, etc. in Canada. Τ褦㤬ä
ȤƤϡ“etc.”Ϥޤ侩Ǥʤʤξ硢ȤСLast summer my friend and I visited Washington, New York, and other (American) cities.Ȥ I bought maple wine, maple syrup, maple butter and other (maple) products in Canada. ȤΤ褦ʸ򤹤뤤ϡLast summer my friend and I visited (various) cities such as Washington and New York.ȤI bought (various) maple products such as maple wine, maple syrup and maple butter in Canada.ȤΤ褦ʸ򤹤ǽ⤢롣

ּסȤβȤ

̱ĴʤɤιƱϺ̤ܹ椬ӸǤڤ줿󣲣ͤεİޤäƹԤ줿ǡаͽѰĹääƲޤʤä顢֤ˤɤפ뤫狼äƤ뤫ǤȿФʤ顢ɽIJɧפȡīʹ28ͼˡ
аȯºݤ˼ˤ櫓ǤϤʤΤǡʹƻ򿮤ۤʤ򿮤Ǹʤ顢IJɧפȤȯˤ“ޤ”λפ򶯤
  ܥ֥ǡ椬ȤλŪȯˤä١βϸڤˡ䤷İаˤϡҲˤơפȤɽȤοͤǤäƤ⡢ͤˤ롢ɽǤ뤳ȤռƤߤäʤ餤Τ餺ҲɬפɽȤϻפʤ᤯ˤʤ뤳Ȥꤦ

յIJɧ꤬Ф褿ΤǡĤǤ˸С꤬ǶᡢTPPʴʿηкϢȶˤӡȥ륺ܤݡ롦ޥåȥˡȤơݡΤʤӡȥ륺ϤʤפȸäʤɤäƤߤСλŪȯ椬Ȥϡ“Ȳ”ʤȻפ

֥åץȡ(uptalk)Ȥä

ʿʸǤʤ顢ȯäʸθտϤ徺Ĵȯܿͤʤʤ㤤ͤ¿ŪݤΤ褦ʤιԤˤʹ롣ȤС⹻Ф줫ؤ˹ԤäߤĤ¤ߤ뺧򤷤ҶǤפΤ褦ʿ夬θĴĿỤ̄СäϤޤ깥ǤϤʤΤʸȯˡʤɡˤϻȶѲΤȤ¤ꤹ櫓ˤϤʤ顢ĤۤäʹƤ롣

θ츽ݤϱѸοͤӤȡȤ櫓㤤ͤäϤѻ¤ΰݤǤ˴ѻ롣ѸǤ̤“uptalk” “upspeak”ʤɤȸƤӡŪˤ“high-rising terminal”άHRTˤ뤤“high-rising intonation”ά“HRI”ˤȸƤǤ롣츽ݤطʤˤĤƤϸĿŪˤϤޤĴ٤ƤʤҤäȤȡԤμΤʤɽ줫ΤʤͤȤϰää򤷤ƤȤְռɽ줫Τʤ뤤ϡʸ[տ]徺Ĵȯ뷹ΤValleyspeakLos AngelesٳSan Fernando Valleyι齻𳹤˽ήԤü򤤤㤤äαƶ뤫Τʤηĥϰ̱ʥɷϡѥϤʤɡˤäƶƤΤΤʤ

ˤ衢ʥѸ졢˥塼ɱѸʤɡαѸѼ˴ѻ뷹Τ褦顢ͳ˹ʤळȤԲǽβŪݤμ֤ĴʬϤСʸȤʤʤߤˡYouTubeưǡΣϤäʹȤ롣

۲򡢸פΰդέalibi"Ȥ

ꥫΥݡĺ Ring lardnerκʤΣĤAlibi Ike ʡ۲򲰤Υ١ˤ롣ϺǽSaturday Evening Post1915ǯ731ˤ˷Ǻܤ줿ʤǡȤƤμʬμԤˡ۲򡢸(excuse)򤹤͸ F. X. Farrelʥߥɥ͡Xexcuse˳ݤΡˤ濴ʪ

̾¬Ǥ褦ˡalibi″ʥХˤexcuse″۲򡢸ˤΰ̣ǻȤƤ롣Ūˤ "I've knew lots o' guys that had an alibi for every mistake they made. ″ʼʬμԤˤ۲򤹤Ĥ򤤤äѤ褿ˤΤ褦˻ȤƤ롣

OED The Oxford English Dict.) Ϥΰ̣ǤνȤ1912ǯΤΤ󤲤Ƥ뤫顢θϤκ̲Ϥ᤿Τȹͤ롣ǤϡHe always has an alibi for every mistake.ʼʬμԤˤĤ۲򤹤ˤΤ褦Ѥ뤬۲򡢸פΰ̣ǤΤθˡޤʤͤ⾯ʤʤ褦

ʤߤˡAlibi Ike ϡκʰ衢۲򲰡(a person who habitually offers excuses and plausible explanations for dubious actionsDict. of American Slang) ̾ˤʤäƤ롣

յRing LardnerȤꥫͺȤȤκʤϺƣϺαƶߤȤʤäΡ򻲾ȡˡ

ޤФۤºۤС

cī˴ʤι⹻夫ͧ͡ɣԤ󤫤餪ä򤤤θλΤȤƤä򲼤롣ĤΤ褦ˡʤۤä˲֤餤֤󡢤Τ롢ʤ̴򸫤ʤ幻Ǥι⹻ʸפ˥֡JRC)ͧͤȤäơե󥹤٤äƤ̴äޤǿӤȱ򻰤ԤߤΤˤƤ䤬λѤܤ˾ƤդΤϡ䤬⹻3ǯνäʤϹ⹻1ǯäդۤɤ“⵮”ʷϵɺ碌νҹ˻ζϹĤäֹβ֡פƤ飴ǯۤɷФʤ2ǯ䤬4ǯνաؤΥߥʡ뼼“Ʋ”꤬“Ʋ”ʤɤȻפϤϤʤä줫ϲ䤫ͳõƤϡߥʡ뼼ٳκʤ˶դƹԤɤϿƱԼԤˤʤäƤäĵΤ᤯κڤβǡդ褷ơͤդäƲפȸäΤȤv1λˤȤäơޤФۤºۤФ⤦45ǯʾΤΤȤˤʤ롣

줫ʤȤۤФ˿롢Ĥξ륱粹ۥƥ˹ԤäĤ̼٤ƤΤǡäƤˤ롣©ҤͤǤ˹ԤΤӤȲˤĤäơ“ޥԤ”Ǥ⿩٤褦ȻפäƤ롣Ĥδʪ٤νˤΩäơȹʴʪ㤦Ĥ

ۺϾv3ΤȡʩץηʴѤդˤ¤äȤʡ쥤εסʲܲԡˤΩäѸθθȤ󥻥ץȤ餷ϡ¼ΥꥢסֳΥꥢסֿΥꥢס֤ޤФΥꥢפʤɤȶ̲ƤơͤҶڤᤴΤ褦ä¼ΥꥢפΰѤ˺ڤβ֤餭ƤơϤäιɺ碌ƤƸˤäƲᤴΤҤȻä

֤ʤbecomeפȳФ뤳ȡ

ˡϺǯ»ԤعαѸ춵ˤʤޤפȤʸƤ餦ȡۤȤɤν I became an English teacher at a junior high school in Urayasu City) last year.Ȥ뤬ѸȤƤϾԼ֤ϡbecome ѤѸŪǤʤȤȤǤϡʸŬڤ˱ȤСŪˤϤɤʤĤΤ褦ˡ椬ʤɼԽˤؤνȤƤ

֤ߤޤפθ

sīʹīˡ֡ߤޤ٤θϡǾȤ΢դ٤ꤵ줿򤤵ФƤʳصѿJST)̾ŲΥब˽48ͤ˰ǯʤɡҲŪ˴ؤո񤤤Ƥ餤񤤤Ƥ줿Ⱦγˤϡ񤤤ʸϤȤϻפʤפʤɤȡ륳դɾ֤ĤγˤϡʥȤ򤷤ƤߤޤפȤպʸդȤǾʬϤΤμ¸Ԥä
η̤ˤȡպʤä롼ǤϡΤҤδäǾȸǤϡޤäƤ뤳Ȥ򼨤ǾγưκѤ줿ǡպΥȤä롼ǤϺǾγư˺ʤäѲʤäޤƥȤǤϹѤʤäԲϹޤäƤθäǤϡդäƤܤƤޤʤ⤵뤳ȤϤʤʤꡢ²ؤȤʤפȤȤη̤23Ʋʳػץȯɽ줿

ǡߤޤפȤպθդּؤʰǤ뤳ȤʳŪ˾줿Ȥˤʤ뤬ߤޤפȤ“ʸ”“礭ʸ”ϡܿͤΤ“ʸΣģΣ”Ȥ߹Τ򤷤褿Ϥ򺣡ܿͤߤޤסʤפȤ“ʹִط”Σ򤢤ޤͭ˻Ȥʤʤä褦ˤפ

ʿ23[2011ǯ]ǯٳذ̵Ϳī

flϲ椬ءƱرʿ23[2011ǯ]ǯٳذ̵ͿԤ夫鱫ˤʤȤͽ´λѤǤ褦ˡŵλ夷Ф餯ϹߤʤǤۤȴäƤ롣

Ť줿դޤˡָǡפĤΤؤȻפä⤦´ȡλ

ʩˤϸäƤ롣ָʤȤ⤷ӤȤסʼˤȡ¾ɤȤΤǤϤʤȤ⤷ӤȤơ´λˤϿ򽼼¤ΤˤƤۤ
´λ´ȡλǤȤ

ڸﵭ۳3زʡˡۥԥƥġꥺ1زʡˡкѳ1زʡˡư1زʡˡ1زʡˤ7̾ҳäΤŪä

֤ҤȤסְڡʤˤסְѡʤˤ

4ڤפȤɽϡܾʤɤ1ƬѤ˶ڤäؤꡢʤȴ긡Ԥ褦ʾˤۤƱ¤줿ʪΤޤȤޤؤꤹΤѤ롣󡢥եʤɤΩѥƥʤɤǻڤäꡢŻʤɤ˰դ褦ʾˡʡְڤפƱǡˤȤ롣Ĥޤꡢϡդ¾ʬ֤Ƥ׾ѤΤʻ̾

Ȥɽʤ¶ΰ̣ˤʤѤפȽ񤯤٤̣ȺƱѤƤͤʤʤ⤽θȤѤΤ̤GoogleˤäƽäƤߤ褦

ڤߤä塢ҡȵʤ鸫夲ȯ
Х˾äƤ顢ϩ򶴤ǻμФ˺¤äڤ򤷤塢֤áפäȹĤ餷ޤ
ɥ祳졼ȲۻҤ뱩ܤˤʤäơϲͤ٤ʤڤʪפÿä塢ί©ǤƤդǭ򸫤ä
ǡ٤٤ݥȤ򳰤Ȥʤ󥵡ȼΤ夬礯ȤʤλΤɮԤڤεФ롣
ѤäܤˤơȻװƴλҶ͡ ڤǺϤ᤿Τ →㥦 →ξ →3 →2 ...

ξ硢ҤȤפ򤸤˽񤱤СΤѤפȤʤ롣Ĥޤꡢʬ֤ƤפȤ̣ΡڤפǤϤʤȤСߤסʴ㤬񤦡פȤѤספΡפƱפˡѤסʤȤˤϡФ餯δ֡ʪ³ͻפ˸ڤѤȤСѤߤäθ塢ۤ򸫤ס֤Υɥ󥿥꡼ȤѤˤʤäȤפʤɤΤ褦Ѥ롣

ΰ̣ΡѤפϺǤϡҤȤפʿ̾ǽ񤫤뤳Ȥ¿ᤫڤפȺƱͤ¿ʤäƤ褦

ͤƤӡNΤȡ

ǯλޤǤ´׷ñ̤Ƽ꽪ζλڤǤǤ˼ҲͤȤƯƤNϡʣˤ˼Ԥذ̼ͿǡƸزȤơ椬غǹαǤľޤͿ롣ǯλμȤ³Ƥ졢ǯˤϥĹ̳Ƥ줿ǯΣǯ֤ͥ˵→⻲ˡ

̤N󤫤᡼äʡʬפȽ񤭤ʤ顢դˤʤäƤ뤫顢餯˵𤷤ΤˡýܤĽϻĤ뤬ǽκܸ٤ȡ֤󤷤äȤܸ줬񤱤褦ˤʤäμԤǤܸ줬񤱤С⤦ҲѤߤȤϤʤǽκᤱиͺפȻפäο¬ϡϤä

 

߾
 
ʬ˼餤ޤۤɡ̳굢𤤤ޤ˻򡢤ֿޤƤޤȤˤ꤬Ȥޤ
ޤ錄ˤ뤳Ȥޤ顢ʤȤդ
 
ľޤĺޤȤȤƤ򤷤פäƤޤޤ´ȼǤפ֤˻Ȥ񤤽ޤȤڤߤǤ
ҲͤȤʤꡢζ̳ʤȤϢʤɤˤޤơꤪĺƤȤڤ򴶤뵡񤬤ƻޤФƤʤФʤʤŻ󤢤ꡢޤʬʤȤФǤޤĹƤޤ褦˼ʬȤᤤƻޤ
ɤΤڤˤʤäơĤޤǤ⤪ǤƤޤ
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N.A.

 

Τ䤫ʸؤϡޤǡΥߤ鲿ͤεľ޼޼ԤФƤ뤳ȤϤǤϤʤ޼ԳƿͤΡּפȤֱѺͤơǷ򶵰פȤϡˤȤäƤϡһҤθ줿ڤΣĤä褦˻פ롣N˲񤨤ΤڤߤˤƤ롣

ָʤסָʤסָΤʤס³

ɽ˴ؤʸ񤤤ΤȤǡ֤⤷ʤ٤ʤ٤ɽ褦ͤ⤤ΤǤϤʤפȻפäơGoogle˳ݤƤߤο¬Ū椷Ƥ“ʤ”η215ҥåȤʲˤΤ5󤲤Ƥ

ʿͤꤸ㤤鲿ʤȤäƤʤͤϤʤȤäƤǤ硣
⤷Τϡʹ֤Ǥ롣 ­äơʤ᤮ ϰ䤷ΤϾ礭ʤä 򸫤ơܤɤäΤȡʤϢϸ
󡢺ȸɤ⤢롢ƱкδǷȤƱϤοʤʤȸ٤˥եѤʤΤǤ롣
Υƺ¤äƤȤ㤤ʷޤϤȡΨԤۤäƤʤäʤãФǤߤޤ ……ͤͤɤʴʢ˰ʪ ...
äȤ⡢ͤʤ餤Τ餺Τ褦ʸȤäѤ򤪤äԤ˹Ԥȡʤ͡ؤͤ˸٤οŪݸ٤ܤ˸ƤΤǡSϤ뾦ͤ˻Τ򳫤ơҲλҶ̵ǹԤ褦˱ƤۤƤ롣

ʹ֤“פ”ȤݤΤȻפ

ָʤסָʤסָΤʤ

gǤϸŸǧʤסʤפΤ褦ʷƻ줬롣ˡʤס䤫ޤפȤ̣ʪʴ载ˤˤϡʤãϡʤФҤʤΤפȽФ롣ʤסʤפȤϡסϤפȤ̣ǡפϡסʬפȤ̣Ρפͳ褹ȹͤƤ褤

ܸǤϡ嵭ΰ̣ɽƻϡʤפ¾ͤαȽ̵Ǥ̵θˤ뤵פ򤤤Ѥ롣GoogleǸ 361,000 郎ҥåȤ롣

ȤΤʤȸäƳФƤʤ餷¿ξ硢 60,800郎ҥåȤ롣ʤο줾㤺ĵ󤲤Ƥ

Ūʡʤ
ͤɤʤã
ʤǯοɤĺ̲ȡ
ɥ롼ʤɾȤؤμ
椨ˡͭ̾ʿͤˤʤȽӤ롣
ξƤ˲ʤȤäΤΤʤʬܤäΤǸʤʬ򾡼 ...

ŪʡΤʤ
ޥߤΤʤڤγ湥Τˤʤ뤳Ȥ餫Ǥ
ȯΤľ塢Τʤ*1ͤ˸äƤȤ¤ȤʤäΤ
ȡΤʤƱνϡֲХäƤΡФͤ¹åܡǤФˤϡϿϷͤפȴ
ּʤפʤƸΤΤʤƱνɤǤäƿ»ŪʤĤ礤ΤϻΤȤ۵dzڤǤͤפȸäƤ롣
ΤʤϢǤСؤξʤǤ⤢ûߥȰʾդԤμŷȤʶ򵯤ΤΤʤ٤ɾ뤫Τʤ

ˤϡΤʤפȤ򤹤ͤ⤤ơΥҥåȿ  4,910Ⱦʤʲ5ѤƤ

ŪʡΤʤ
ΤʤġȤοαͺͫݵɺäƤ롣
ΤʤϢϡ᤿סֺƵǽפȸޤäƤ롣
Τ˥᡼ʤꡢʤ꤫ɾΤʤȤĤ䤹Ǥ͡ʾС.
ҤüʧĤġζʤϤΤʤϢᡢ ȤɤΥӤۤޤ롣
ޡλˤΤʤܲʹȻפ ˤϥǤʤȤ¿

Ĥ񤯤褦ˡ¿ο͡ŪɽѤ褦ˤʤСˡϤ䤬̤θˤʤ롣ȤϤΤŵΣĤⲡ⤻סʤ餬ŪŪʸäϤ386,000ˤȡסʤŪʤΤȲᤵ褿Ϥ 460,000ˤȤɹ֡Ȥž֤

ֿ줤פΡ֤פ򤸤ǽ񤯤ȡ

ʤᤤƤΤʤפȤפȸޤƫʤȤ롢äȤꤷɤʬˤҤפΰ̣ǤѤ롣ס־δӤפʤɤȻȤ
ȤǡΡפΡפ򤸤˽񤯤ȤɤȤ֡ԤפȤˤʤ롣ΤפȽ񤯿ͤʤʤƱפǤפΤۤ¿ʤޤդ̣ۤʤʡԤפϡåפΰաˡ

ĤΤ褦GoogleѤơ줤Τ″򸡺6,080 ҥåȤ롣줤Τ” 16,000 ˤʤ롣ξԤ3㤺ĵ󤲤Ƥ

ޤФ椤ָĦפ줤Τ
줤ΤȤǤޤ
250Υ˿졢줤Τ.
ġѴۤ줤Τ
ơ͡ϥ饷åȤϰۤʤ벻ڤ̥Ϥ줤Τ
դεȲäĤޤߤˡܤǾƤ夲̣줤Τ

㤤פΰ̣

c˻ҳΰͤθ漼ˤäơ󥫡ߥ㤤褿Τǥ󤷤㤨ޤפȸ䨤ˡáϤɤ⤢꤬ȤǡäƤ줿ΡפʹͤϤȤȤǡ֣Ǥפȱ
ɤͤȻȤδ֤ˡȸɤä褦ʤʤ顢ˤȤäơפܸϡ(äƤɬ̰ʾʪ򤿤㤤סʡسظ忷켭ŵٲ裴ǡˤȤ̣ȤСϿ̤¾ΤȤͤơʤɤסֺϵʤΤɤߤȻפäƤ򽽿פʤɤΤ褦Ѥ롣

äơ֥󥫡ߥ褿פȸȡƱΤˤʤ뤪줬Τǡͧͤ²ؤΥץ쥼Ȥˤ뤿ˡعʤɤ̡֤ƤˤʤɤͳˡäɤȤդ˴ƤޤΤ

󡢤äȹͤоQŪȽǤǤ뤳ȤϤפȤδޤߤϡ¿¿פ顢ʸ̮ˤäƤϸ򾷤ͤʤ֤󤽤γϡ񤷤ܤɤ߻Ϥȡ֤ʤ̲ס֤μȤĤפʤɤθ˸褦ʡư򶯤פΰ̣ǡ㤤褿פȸäΤ

פGoogleǽäƤʥ󥫡ߥ̾Ф㤬äΤˤϾä裲㤬ˡ

ƤĤǤˤ⤦㤤ǤΤϡ
ǯ˽Ф󥫡ߥ㤤Ǥޤ
ä磻1㤤ǤΤޤǤե (m*.
饪饪1ԤŤƤޤꤦޤʤ餷
դϤޤݤ߲᤮ʤ褦ˤ褦Ȥޤӡ1㤤Ǥ
Ǥ1뤬줤ʤֺ⸵ͷ֤פȻפäΤޤξ˥㴨 ͧͤ1餤Ǥ顦
εˤʤʤݥȤƤΤ򸫤ơϤꤽʤ˿͵ΤʤʤȻפ󥰷⤽Υݥ㤤Ǥޤ

ˤ衢γˤϡ֥󥫡ߥäƤƤ꤬ȤפȰźʤ顢Ʊŵ˥򤷤֤
ɼԤΤߤʤ󡢤ɤإ󥫡ߥ¼ŵ٤ɡäȡȤɤ

ߤιǻפФҤ

u2ī᤯ȶ˲椬Ȥζ⤷Ƥȡסߤιɺä褿̤ȡɬפФҤȤ롣䤬ǤºɤҤȤΰͤ⤦˴ʤäƣǯ᤯ˤʤ롣塢ӤϤơͶ᤯νȰʤŵβҤбĤۤɤˤޤǤʤäҤȤͧΡǸɤˤäơΰˡкŪŪ³ơؤޤǽФΤҤɤǤ⤢äͧΡǸɤȤϡκʻҤाפäͧΤϢ礤ˤ⡢λҤΩޤǡкŪ³Ƥ󡢡Ȳɤʤ̵ΤҤȤä

οͤϼȤ褯ߤʼס졢Ҽʡ16ǯˤΤäΤӤˡܤϽʤǤ

դޤ ʤ󤻤 u
žˤ롡ߤβ
ư ʤ
ؤơʤ

и᤿㤬ȤǤ
ߤʤऻ֡դ
ʤ ˺ơҤȤȤ
ͧ(Ȥ)衡ʤ

ʤФƤ椯
ʤʤϤʡ ȡȤ
Τ ʤۤޤ 㡡ߤ
Ʈ˹(ܤ)ˤơ椳ʤ

ܤˤϤޤҤȤǤ⤤⻲ȡˡͥϤΤ˿ʳؤǤʤȤ褦ʻҤСλҤ¼ǡϰǶФäơλҤʳؤλҤξۤ夲򤹤롢ɤä

ƤΤǤϷ褷Ƥʤֻפ԰٤ʤɤʤ䤬ƤΤϡͧͭͧȤ嫤ζ桢¾ͤ­ĥʹ֤⤤뤬¾ͤ­ǤΤʹ֤⤤롣ʤȤīߤι̤ʤפФͤƤ

ߤ µ˰ܤ ȤɤƤ
 դϲᤰȤ ʤޤ źɿΡ

ߤβ ̴˸餯 ߤӤ
֤Ȥפ ⤫٤ȼι

ѸδѶȱѸϸ콸

ܤƤ顢ΰʾˡ椬©Ҥؼ˻ȤäƤعʱѽϸ300ʤ˿Ҥνϸ콸Ф褿ˡʼԤ⡢ФʤäפȤä©ҤåֱɮפĤ롣

ѥѥȤ᤯äơŪˤϤʸϹޤʤפȻפ褦ʴѶ礬ȽФ褿ˤ3󤲤Ƥߤ롣ǽΣϡƱ˾岼ƽФ롣

ϳΤɾȽ
He is (     )(     )(     ) by his students.
åspoken ill of Ĥޤꡢspeak ill of Ф뤳ȤݥȤζˤϡΤȤ򰭤פȤܸ줬ƤƤ롣

ϲڤٶ򤹤뤿˥ȥꥢعԤä
She went to Austria (     )(     )(     )(     ) studying music.
  åfor the purpose of Ĥޤꡢfor the purpose ofing Ф뤳ȤݥȤζˤϡ뤿פȤܸ줬ͿƤ롣

ȤȤˤʤȡȤ
When (     )(     )(     ) fishing, he is an expert.
åit comes to ĤޤꡢWhen it comes to
Ф뤳ȤݥȤζˤϡȤȤˤʤפȤܸ줬ͿƤ롣

ΣϤѸ″ǤϤ褯ݤ褦ˡäǤϹޤʤΤǤϸѸʤĤޤܤι⹻Ūܸ٥αѸˤǸСɤʸˤĤΤ褦ˡ椬ʤܥ֥ɼԡˤؤνȤƤ

ۻϤޤǤѸ″˴ؤ˸ڤƤΤǤäơǤνϸ콸ӤԤȽŪڤ򤷤ƤΤǤϤʤΤǰΤᡣ

Many many thanks for the support and encouragement!

Fuji
Here are four videos from YouTube
I saw again yesterday (March 11)
On the First Anniverssary of
The Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.


Many many thanks for the support and encouragement
Given by all to the disaster-stricken areas in East Japan.



Many many thanks for the encouraging words and prayers
From around the world.



Many many thanks for the encouraging messages 
From New York.




Many many thanks for your "R-E-S-P-E-C-T", lingosteve!



Where there is no sympathy with the spirit of man,
there can be no sympathy with any higher spirit. J. Ruskin

Quemcuque miserum videri hominem scias.L.A. Ceneca

Bist du ein Mensche? so fűhle meine Noth.”Faust”




My Old Country Home
The English Translation of "Furusato"
By K. YAMAGISHI ©

 1.
I hunted rabbits on that mountain.
I fished for minnows in that stream.
I still dream about those days I spent when a child.
How I miss and long for my old country home.

2.
Mother and fatherare they doing well?
Is everything all right with my old friends?
When the rain falls, when the wind blows, I recall
My happy childhood and my old country home.

3.
 Some day when I have done what I set out to do,
I will return to where I used to have my home.
Lush and green are the mountains of my homeland.
Pure and clear is the water of my old country home.

If there is any material ...

If there is any material espcially YouTube videos
on my site that the authors / uploaders object to
my using, I will remove the material immediately
upon notification by them.
Anonymous enquiries and e-mails will not be replied to.
Thank you.
Prof. Dr. K. Yamagishi
http://jiten.cside3.jp/mail.htm

̺Ҥ1ǯ ò˺ޤ



ǯ
ʿ23 [2011] ǯ311(
246ʬ

̺Ҥ˴ʤä¿γͤФ
ǰΰդɽ̽ʡ򤪵꿽夲ޤ
ޤ²γͤФ
￴ꤪ߿夲ޤ

ޤΤ²򤪻γͤФ
ͤΤ̵ǰȳͤοᤷߤ
￴ꤪפޤ

γͤ˿ʩΤøޤ褦
²γͤ˰¤餮ˬޤ褦
￴ꤪפޤ

⤴Լͳ;ʤƤ볧
ͤ˰᤯ʿ郎ޤ褦
￴ꤪפޤ



ο̺ҤȤǵȤʤä
ʹְʳȤΤ
κΰ¤餫ʤ󤳤Ȥ
ĤäΤʿʤ󤳤Ȥ

MaronNeroBlog

ֻ֥߶Ѹ쥵
߾

Υ᡼ǻפȡ

ߴϢϢǥ˥᡼ȡ̵̾ס̵ַ̾סʤ뤤Re:ηˤֿʤʤ⤢뤳Ȥǥý20̾᤯˥᡼äýϴΤȤ餽ֿλϤʤΤǯȾ᤯ϡ̵̾ס̵ַ̾סʤ뤤Re:ηΤޤޡˤ֤ä롣
ʬǤʬäƤĤʤΤѷФֿʸ񤤤Ƥ⡢ʬ̾ʤСϤΡ̵̾פ򥢥ɥ쥹֥åõƤƤǤʤȡֿʸ⽽ʬˤϤǤʤΤ
㤤ͤϿƤͧͤ²ȤΥ᡼Τ˴Ƥ뤿ˡ¾ͤ˥᡼Ф⡢տޤ뤳Ȥʤ̾פַ̾פʤΤ줬äƤοͤʤϤʤȿΤ褦ʡޤդ礤ΡʤۤȤɡˤʤǤϡϤ̾פַ̾פ٤줬;פʼ֤ݤʤkǡڤʽȻפ 

⤦1䱡ȥ᡼Τ򤷤Ƥȡ᡼ʬĻ񤤤ʤʤ񤹤Ĥǽ񤯤ΤǤϤʤ᡼㤦ȡľʤȤǤäƤޤƱˤϡ줬ɤΤΤʤΤ¤äƤޤȤȤ⤢ΤΤ礭ʸǤθ̤ΤȤˤ롣䤬ءرκˤäˤʤäO30ǯޤˤϤ褯äƤ줿۩

¾ͤ˽ФϥĻȤΤϡʬĻǽʬѤ褦Ωοʹ֤ѤΤƤʤäȤϸ䱡ǯĹԤ˼ϥФϡΩΰ㤤θơȼʬ̾ξ񤤤ۤ褤ĻȤΤϤˤ“½”ʴ롣

ɤͤɤޤѤ뤫ˤ椬ˤ󿴤αƤߤҲ˽Фäơ򤹤뤳ȤϤäƤ⡢»򤹤뤳ȤϤʤϤ顣

ֶڡסߡ

kǯ椬ȤΡפμ̿Ϻīॱ″ǻäΤ

ǯ餭ᡢ餭ؤäƤ롣ִ֤ʤĹڤ˴ؤƤϡޤǤˤⲿ٤ڤʤ→ˤǯɤȤ礭ʤäƤ롣ڶޤߤ″β椬ȤˤʤȤ礤˴򤷤⤢롣

ȭξʤΤäڤϡ1᡼ȥͥĶΤĹƤ롣ȸäǤʤ̤ä򤷤ƤäƤ櫓Ǥʤȭ鸼ؤζ᤯礭ʥץ󥿡˰ܤƤä顢äΤĹƹԤä̿Ի׵Ĥפ虜ʤ

¿Ρֶڡפβ뤬椬ȤΤΤϡ椷½Ϥʤ줫ߤǤߤ勞ϡ椬Ȥൡ″פ˷äޤ󤳤Ȥ…

Nature admits no lie.T. Carlyle (1795-1881)
ϵT.饤

Eveything in nature goes by law and not by luck.R.W. Emerson (1803-82)
ʪϤߤˡ§˰ͤäƱԤѧ餺R.W.ޡ

֤⤯Ȥޤסαϡ

±Ѽŵˤϡ⤯ȤޤפȤơput on airsbe haughtybe stuck-up󤲤ƤΤ롣¤ϡؽԡѼԤˤԿڤޤput on airsϤۤɲŪʶǤϤʤäơȤС⤯Ȥޤʤ衪פȤ褦ʺդǤϻȤʤΤ̤ʸĿͺϤˡϡ3ܤ˵󤲤Ƥbe stuck-upѤơDon't be stuck up!Τ褦˸Τɤޤܤbe haughtyϡֹʡפ˶ᤤΤ顢֤⤯ȤޤפȤϥԡ٥뤬롣

ordinanceordnanceΤ

ꥫΤ˴ؤ뵭򥦥־ɤǤơordinanceʾˤ򡢡ʼʡפΰդordnance ȴְ㤨֤äƤ˽Ф路ξԤȯƱǤ뤳ȤΤʤʲ˸ä֤󤲤Ƥ

Department members investigate crimes, accidents, and city ordnance code violations.
So I'm looking through st. louis city public ordnance on the library's website but I haven't found where open carry is prohibited.
The state law supersedes the county ordnance.
When he thought all hope was lost, he found a county ordnance about unfit dwellings,  dangerous structures or nuisances.

ȡ฽Ѹ″δξ֤ΰ㤤˸ڤĤξϤĤƤ϶̤ʤѤƤ̣ˤʬäΤϱ17Ѹμˡ򰷤Ǥξ̸졢̵ȤƼ갷Ƥ롣

٤Τȡ

轵ʣ˲椬رαѸز񤬳Ť롣νΤˡ̾ȤʤäơޤޤʻŻʬôƴĥäƤƤ롣餪򤪾ƹֱ򤷤ƤȤˤʤäΤˤϡΣ٤ϢȤʤäƼȦƤƤ롣ۤȤƤǤƤΤϡ衢Ԥˤʤäɬ䤽ηиޤޤ̤ΩĤȤƿ″Ǥ롣

϶¦ηǤ롣ǡΤ˰Ȥ򿽤夲٤ȹͤơͼ᡼򤵤ƤֻդΤͤϤˤֻ򤤤ϢΣ٤ʽˤ˴ؤơرΣ٤󤫤ϡɤϢټޤפȸäƤ

¤ϡʼˤʤ뤬ˣ٤ϳ塢αƸزʥߤ˽°ѷǼǭܸä줿ͤǤ롣ˤ᡼ʸϤϤĤۤȤɿʬΤʤΤ񤯡ߤϡʱѸ춵դǤϤʤܸ춵դȤƯʤ顢رǤ⸦Ǥ롣Τέϫ″¤ꡢΤ褦ˡζ˥᡼򺹤夲Ƥ⡢ɤϢפɾƤ롣٤˭Cruel to be kindפäƸˤܤ򤷤褿ԤȤơ줬ְäƤʤäȼ´Ǥƴ򤷤

ڸ嵭ۣ٤˴ؤƤϡ⤦⡢ޤǡ٤󤫤餴Ϣ򤤤Ƥޤäꤵ줿ȤΰݤǤפȸäƤ

ǯ꿽Ѥޤ褿

tǯʬʿ23ǯʬ˽Ǥγ꿽˹Ԥä褿ī餢ˤαͤä֥塼ȤδطȷƤ顢ɴ˵ۤäơʬ˲ȤФ̳ϲ椬ȤƻʬƻΤʬΥޤ䥿ȤˤϤʤʤäƻ˴ʤȤڤۤФ뤫ŷˤϹŷΡˤϱΡˤβۤФ줳ɤƻ

伫Ȥμǿ񤭡Ф褦ˤʤäƤ顢3ܤǯǯϡʤĤȥޥ˥奢ɤ򻲹ͤˤʤκȤä顢줿ʤλΤ򸫤Ƥϡ߾夲ơ񤯼꤬դȻߤޤ뤳ȤäϤʤȤϤʤȤͽ¬ɤäΤȤϤƤߤȡϤʤϫŤǤ뼫ʬ

t2̳夤ΤϣȾä䤿򣴣ʬ᤯⤤Ȥä顢ξ⤫Ǥơɤפ򤷤ʤХå鿽Фʤ򲡤Ƥä

̳Фơ򡢤ĤεŹΩꡢۥåȥҡȥեȡȤʸŹ˼ȥҡβȤǡ䤨ڤäΤϾIJޤäˣʬۤɵƤ顢ɽ˽Ф³ƤʤȤ褯򤷤ƻ̤äƼ˸äǯκ򸫤ʤʤ⤤ۤФɤä褿꿽Фˡˤϡֶ㤨ʤڤʤΡפ뤳ȤƼ´

Memory, of all things good remind us still;
Forgetfulness, obliterate all that's !ll. - Macedonius.
 衢Τʤ˻פ表
˺Ѥ衢ưΤ˺줷衽ޥɥ˥

Ʊְ۲۵פΤ

ܿͱѸؽԤˤȤäơޤanimationʥ˥᡼ˤȤߤΤΤˤʤäƤ롣ΤʤؽԤϤʤޤηƻ⤷ưȤƤanimateȤߤؽԤ¿ȻפƻȤƤanimateȡưȤƤanimateȤȯۤʤȤΤäƤؽԤȤʤȡοͿ϶ü˾ʤʤ褦ƻȤƤanimate/ǽmət/ ȯ뤷ưȤƤanimate/ǽmeıt/ȯ롣äơthe animate worldʪưʪˤȤanimateϡanimate one’s classroom (赤ŤˤȤanimateƱ褦ȯ櫓ˤϤʤ


򺣡δŪμ礯ر¿ʤäƤ褦ʵ롣⣴̾γä򤷤Ƥơ꤬
articulationȯĴˤ˵ڤηƻưΤȤ˿줿ϤԤarticulateǤ뤳ȤΤäƤƻưȤǤȯۤʤ뤳ȤܤΤäƤϡǰʤȤˡ̾ʤäƻ/ɑrtíkjələt/Ǥꡢư:rtíkjəleıt/Ǥ롣äơarticulate speechƤäˤȡarticulate a wordʤñƤȯˤξ硢articulate ȯƱǤϤʤ

Τ褦ʡ֤ƱȯỌ̇̄ȤۤʤϡŪˤϡƱְ۲۵(heteronymˤȸƤФ롣

¾ȤСʲΤ褦ʸ̾ʸˤäƤϷƻˤȤѤȡưȤѤȤǤϡǤθƱ͡ọ̇ۤʤ

 1. alternate ʷƻư
 2. desolate ʷƻư
 3. deliberate ʷƻư
 4. elaborate ʷƻư
 5. estimate ̾ư
 6. graduate ̾ư
 7. learned ʷƻưʲʬˡ
 8. moderate ʷƻư
 9. perfect ʷƻư
10. present ̾ư
11. rebel̾ư
12. separate ʷƻư
13. subject ̾ư
14. suspect ̾ư
15. transport ̾ư

ֲʡפʱѸʡˤΤ

ʤ顢ʤס֭Τ″ΤפʤɤɽˡǤ̤Ѥ褦ˤʤäƤΤ¿“Х[٥]”“ޥ”ʤɤϤĿŪˤϡ⸽ߤʤ̵֤̤ɽŪˤϡä˼㤤Ǥ˽˴طʤ̤˻ȤƤ롣

ѸǤ⤽Ρ1981ǯ56κˡꥹΥɥˤʡۥƥ (Grosvenor Hotel)ǡԥͥM.F.󤫤ʹäϿƤYou know.”ȤYou don't say″ȤäϭVulgarˤȤäƤϤʤȸ줿֤Ǥ⡢ͥˤʤäƤ顢ʿͤդäơäˤޤ…פȾФäƤYou know.ǰ򲡤ꡢθդͤꤹݤŪ˻ȤɽǡܸǸСۤ顨ͤΤ…פʤɤꡢѸǤϤ̤θɽˤʤäƤǤ⡢“”Ȥͤ¿褦ޤYou don't say.ϡ͡ءפ˶ᤤΤǡʤ″ȸͤϤۤȤɤʤդȤϤΤĤޤꡢˡѲΤ

ڸ۸֡زʡ٤ʱѸʡˤΤȡ³ˡ񤤤

ƻ lastۣin the last chapterξ

bѸǽ񤫤줿ʸʤɤɤǤơɤΰ̣פȻפ碌ˡ˽й礦Ȥ롣ɮԤιҤʤin the last chapter”Ϥ1ξηƻlast”ϡʻŪˡˤΡפȤ̣ˤ⡢ʽ˺ǸΡפȤ̣ˤǤ뤫顢ɼԤϡ֡ɤΰ̣¤蘆뤫ΤʤԤΰ̣ʤ顢ϤפȤʤ뤷Ԥΰ̣ʤǽϤפȤʤ롣

硢ʤ顢Ԥΰ̣ǤЭpreceding”Ѥƭin the preceding chapterϤˤȤԤΰ̣ǤЭfinal”Ѥƭin the final chapterǽǡˤȤСϲ褹Ϥ

ʤthe last two [three, etc.] chapters”Τ褦ˡʣˤʤäƤ⡢ܼѤʤ

֤ʤWhyˡפʹȤ᤯Ѹθ촶

wñθ츻̣ʤӤιˤɤ깭Τ褦ˤʤꤿСʤ顢ʤ(Why)פȼ䤷ФȤդ뤳ȤȻפȤСϳ塢Ǥˤ˼Τ褦ʵ򼫤ȯФõ褦ˤƤ

˾ԤҤguest ȸΤˡۥƥ쥹ȥǤ϶ʧäƤҤguest ȸƤ֤ΤϤʤ

ɬĮԲ˷ƤƤ櫓ǤʤΤˡ ĹΥƥ饹ϥΤȤtown-house ȸƤ֤ΤϤʤ

urban person ϡԲ͡פΰ̣ʤΤˡurban ˭eդurbane person Ȥȡ֡ԲŪˡ줿͡פΰ̣ˤʤΤϤʤ

嵭Ρʤפ˴ؤƤϡĤΤ褦ˡ椬ʤܥ֥ɼԽˤؤνȤƤ

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