2012ǯ11

academic harassment power harassment

˿ǡϥסǥߥåϥ饹פ“”Ǥꡢαacademic harassment “Ѹ”Ƚ񤤤Ȥ˿ᤫ顢±ѡ˥±Ѥ2ϡacademic harassment ֥ϥʡᥢǥߥåϥ饹ȡˡפȤƺܤƤȶ줿ǧƤߤȡ̤ȤȤ狼ä

ϥסǥߥåϥ饹פľacademic harassment “ȯαѸ”ȹͤۤ󡢡ѥϥסѥϥ饹פФpower harassment⤽ΤˡѸοͤˤϤ褯“”ǤΤäĴ٤Ƥߤʬ뤳ȤѸο͡񤤤ꡢäꤹѸˤϡˤˤϽФʤ

Ȥ顢±Ѽŵ˲դacademic harassment power harassmentȤƷǺܤ뤳Ȥ˻ȿФ

Ū˸Сϥסǥߥåϥ饹פȤƤαѸϡ"(an) abuse of power and position on campusѥϥסѥϥ饹פȤƤαѸϡ "supervisor harassment, rankism; (an) abuse of power and position in the workplace"Τ褦ʤΤʤߤˡƱνΥꥫ͡50ȾˤϻμαˡI think both of your definitions are correct and accurate. ʤʤμξΤǸ̩Ȼפޤˤ

Ѹȥ쥸å

αѸư10ϤΤŪ뤤ϥ奢ʤΤФ򽼤Ƥ뤳ȤǤ

 1. ask
 2. begin
 3. brave
 4. buy
 5. carry
 6. finish
 7. hasten
 8. get
 9. hide
10. say

Ūϲޤä񤭸դäդǤ̤θ򤹤뤳ȤʤʤȤСΤ褦ʸ줬Ƥǽ⤤

 1. inquire
 2. commence
 3. valiant
 4. purchase
 5. bear
 6. complete
 7. expedite
 8. obtain
 9. conceal
10. remark

 ʶˤޤäʸȤʤʸϤȤʤäƹԤΤ줬ʤʸ쥸å(register clash)򵯤ƤפȸȤС2ܤbegincommence˺ΤäƸСֲĤϸ2˻ϤޤפʤThe meeting will begin at two (o'clock) in the afternoon.Ǥ褤ֲĤϸ2γͽǤפʤThe meeting will commence at two (o'clock) in the afternoon.褤ξ硢ǽαʸܤܸ˽ƤС뤤ܤαʸǽʸʸȤƻȤС줾δ֤ˡ쥸å(register clash)פ뤳Ȥˤʤ롣ܿͳؽԤˤ꤬ΣĤ

إѡ󥫡±Ѽŵ 3 ̲Ǥ褤ȯ!

s褤衢إѡ󥫡±Ѽŵ裳̲䤦ȤˤνŹˤܤ¤ͽإѡ󥫡±Ѽŵ裲ǰʹߤλ濴ȤԽؤϤ򤢤̲ǤǤ롣ܼŵϡŪ±Ѽŵפ³Ƥ2ǰʹߤθ̤̤ε¤ΤȹͤƤФ꤬ԻΤǡּαѸ(English of our own)ܻؤؽ±ѼŵǤ롣󡢤­ȤĤϤʤ줫֤˾ޤ±Ѽŵפơ̿Τ¤ꡢƱͤϤ礫ʤĤǤ롣

ܼŵĹҤ٤Ƥ

1ŪÿϵǤ򤽤ΤޤްѤǤ¾ŵο򤷤ʤȤˤܼŵÿΣġˡ

Ͻǡ裲ǤӤơ̤䤷Ū45,000ܤϿǤŪʻΤԼͳϤʤϤǤ롣

Ƕθɲä˥եꥨȡץꡢǽͥ륮̥ᡢ桢衢奷塢B饰ᡢȾ졢ɾﳲ󥹥ڥȡ

ܸȯۤDZߥ⤷ľȤ󡢤ư濴ȤηޤäӤĤ򹭤ʸȤȤ館ơǤΤΤޤȤ᤿ʸ󡢱μ⤷ΥĥȤοߤƳؽԤصޤä

ؽ±Ѽŵɤؽ켭ŵǤ⤢ꤿդ򰦤ؽԤƤΤΩļŵǤꤿȼʸ褯Τꡢ褯ȯǤؽԤƤΤΩļŵǤꤿǮۤԻŵǤ롣ʤ˹ᤷ⻲ȡ

ʡ2,900ߡ1,774ǡʾ2Ǥ̤Ƥ뤬̤ιסʸ礭ѹˤꡢǿȤƤϸ

I feel good.ɤȡI feel well.ɤΰ㤤

I feel good.ɤϡI feel well.ɤƱ̣Ǥ饹˿ʹ줿ȤDZ¼ŵdzǧʤȸĤġξǤϼΤ褦

I feel good.ɤŪˤ뤤Ͼ̤ good ȸäƤ롣Ĥޤꡢʡ˾ޤäƤ롣ФơI feel well.ɤξϡֺµǤϤʤ(not ill)Ȥ(state)ĴƤ롣顢ξԤƱǤϤʤ

  ɤäȻפǤμ桢뤤ϼȽλˤˤ˼롣ԻƤȡϻѸΡ(walking dictionary) Ȥ礤ˡȳѡɤƤ뤫顢ٶդ櫓ˤϤʤ

ŷ=symbol=ħפ򽧼Ϻ

s1s2̹򽧼ϺΤäˡ١ʾ塢̼ʸˡˤ˼Τ褦ʲս꤬Ф롣

Ȥ³⤽ŷĤܥȤȤ餷ܸˤˤ
  򽧤󡢥ܥäƤΤϲͤ󡩡סȪϺۤǿҤͤƤ
  ֱѹ񤸤㥤ꥹ񲦤Ϲ̱ΥܥȤȤˤʤäƤ뤫顢äƤǤܸǤϤɤФΤ…ħȤǤФΤ…ˤα¼ŵƤߤ顩ס
  “α¼ŵ”Ȥϡǯ˰彽ʤΤ夦ˤäԤޤ줿缭ŵʻƲŹˤΤȤǤ롣Ϻθդ˽äƾȪϼƤߤ
֤äѤ򽧤󡢥ܥϾħ͡
ˡ“ħ”ȤդϤȤǷޤäΤ2101ǡ

ܿͤΤۤȤɤϱѸsymbol ܸΡ־ħפˤΤȤȤΤäƤ롣ܤǤϡȪʤرDZѸؤ̳ʾijݡȪʤ褷Τ褦ʿͤǤˤŬڤбͤ뤳ȤǤʤäޤ“Ϳ”ȤƿƤŷĤ塢“symbol”ˤʤäΤȪˤϸǤä˰㤤ʤ
ꥹʥ֥åءαؤĹä򽧼ϺϾ嵭ΤȤꡢꥹ񲦤“symbol”ªƤ뤳ȤΤäƤꡢǡ־ħפȸäΤα缭ŵ򸫤뤳ȤȪ˴Ƥ롣μŵϾ˷Ǻܤ̿ˤΤȯǯϾ嵭βäˤȤꡢǯ

human θˡ

衼åѤ˿񤫤αҷ줿᡼“You're the kindest human I've met." Ȥʸä˫줿Τϴ򤷤äѸhuman Ȥ̾ˡäȵˤʤä󡢤ϰ̣̤Ѹhuman ƻȤѤΤǡhuman being Ȥperson Ȥפˡ͡ʡĿ͡פΰ̣ѤΤϤޤ깥ޤΤǤϤʤ
human ͤۤưʪ椹Ѥ뤳Ȥ¿㡧Most birds and animals are afraid of humans [human beings].)嵭Τ褦Ǥ“You're the kindest person [man / professor / teacher]...” ʤ̤θΤۤޤ

ǽܿͤϤȤƤŨä٤ɤ

yǽʤ褦夦ܿͤϤȤƤŨä١ʺβֽǡ2012ǯ3212裳ˤɤܽϡܡסѡס찡פȤäɤǸƤƤޤ޸ĤΤäǤ2003ǯ1225Ȥ뤫顢9ǯۤ˴Ԥ줿Ȥˤʤ롣κϱ¡±ѼŵԻ˻ˤƤ顢μνҤ˼ˤʤä
ѿͤCʽˤرʸž夲褦ˤʤꡢ䤬CλƳäƤȤ;פѤܤȤδطΤꤿʤäơ줳õƤ뤦ܽ˽йä

֤Ϥΰ̤ˤơܽԡǽ̾򹰻ҤȤ7ǯ1932ǯˤˡܤԤޤä㤵̾줵ˤǡѿͤȴʤä줵ҷäˤȶˡԤʤäͤܽϡӤˡܿͤϡܿͤǤ뤳Ȥ礤˸ؤäƤΤǤΤϤɤˤäΤǤϤӤΤǤäꤷߤΤǤפȡܿͤӣդ¤֡

ϤפϡǺǤ餷ܤ˽Ǥ볧ס3ǡˤȤɽǻϤޤ롣ΤϣϤꡢ裱ϡ̿βͤܿס裲ϡס裳ϡ餷äܶס裴ϡͥܤʼ⤵ס裵ϡ塢ͤä褿ס裶ϡܿͤ衢äꤷƤס裷ϡۤФϱʱˡפ³

裱Ϥϡعؼ˸Ԥ֤žˤʤäΤߤäƤ줿ܿ;ؤθڤ濴ܤξԤǡͥܤԤƱ̿βͤܿפϤƤȤ¬ĤξϤϡ翧ϤߤäƤ󡢺ɤˤä㤤ޤɤθդϤޤ褦ˡϤĤѤؤ꤬Ȥޤ٤ȿǰƤޤפȤդθդǽäƤܿ;ΤȤϡ裵Ϥν꺢ˤ⡢Ƥ줿ܿ;󤬻λŻθưפȽФ
裲ϤϡܤˤǡʿŪǡѿͤܿͤȤư뤳Ȥ­ƤȤȤ˽ϤƤ롣ƱϤϼΤ褦ʥԥɤϤޤäƤ롣

ѤʤȤ礭ޤϡäȤʬή졢ɤʤƤ夬Ƥ褷ƺʤΤǤΡϷͤϤ褯äƤΤǤ̤ο夬ŷʿˤʤ롢ȡơ̤ο夬ܷѤܼ˾Φ֤줤ˤʤäƤޤΤǡ͡ܤϤäȸ޽ǯȱƤޤ(48ǡ

ơԤϡθӡפ򼡡ȵ󤲤Ƥ

˾񤫤ѤܼܤϡڤǤѤ餷ȻפܤƱ䡢ʾΤΤѤ˺Ȥ褦˻פޤ(άˡޤܿͤ϶ˤϤƤơϤ˹ԤɬعޤѤǤؤعʸߤؤȹع碌ΤˡعձޤǺꡢܤΩɤʷʪǤؤǥ˺Ƥޤ489ǡ

¾ѤϰݤƤȡѤοӤܿͤθӤǤˤ⹴餺ͤवȤʤɤ񤤤Ƥ롣ޤƤĤԤˡ֤꡹ĤʤǡסͼƤ䤱פʤɡܤβΤ򶵤ȤոƤ롣

3ϤǤϡܤζ餬ǡ餷ä¿μȶ˽񤫤Ƥ롣عλܿͶդԤ˻ܤʹֶβ꤬äƤϤŪˡԤˡ˰줿סδݤϿιסƸκ⻺ȻפäƤסؤοȷɰפʤɤȤܡʿ͡˻θդȤ碌Ƥ롣

4ϤǤϡԤᡢѿͤܤʼ⤿ɤۤͥͤǤäܤ񤫤Ƥ롣ܤʼ⤵ϲ桹θؤסŪäʼ⤵Ȥο礤סҶͥäʼ⤵פȤäФߤơѿͤιƤΤŪ

5ϤǤϡ塢ѤΰȤȤǡϺͤפȸ줿ԤζäȰ´񤫤Ƥ롣񤫤ղФι񷳡ʹܷ̱޷ˤѤꡢݤǤʤʤä㼨򤤡Ԥϡ夵äž֤ޤ줿פȤФǡܻϡȤθͤĤʤƤť뤳ȤϤޤǤפȽ񤭻ϤᡢΤĤDzȤθ򤫤ʤǤ顢3μž֤ǰΩɤμž֤ޤ줿³Ƥ롣Τۤʼ˲˽Ǥä񤤤Ƥ롣ܻνȤȤ˲ȤפιǤϡܻμȤΤ˸ʿäפȤ롣ܥäꡢܥ줿ꤹ뤳ȤϤʤʼǸפäȿ֤롣
ȤˤͤѤǤ褦ȤȤϡѤγƸѤ˺줵뤳(194ǡˤäȸˤλ֤ˤʤȡԻϤȤܷ˰Ȥ򤷤ܤळȡܤ򺨤ळȤФ򶵤פ194ǡˡ

6ϤǤϡ塢̵ܿͤˡܿͤ衢äꤷƤפȷ夹롣ܤ찡κݤ˹ԤäɤȤϵ󤲤ˡȤФ򤢤Ĥ餦ΤϸʿʸǤϤʤԤϸ۽Ȥ̾Τ椹˶ܿס231ǡˤǤϡߤΤ˱ɡȯŸܿͤϤ餦Ȥ礭ˤ⹴餺ܤϻͽǯ޽ǯ⤪ȸ³ס231ǡˤԤϸ餱¦ܡˤٷкŪ˭ˤʤȡ٤ϡ۽٤ȤդΤȤˤ椹Ȥ롣Ϥ䤯ΤǤīڹϡ򤺤äȤ³Ƥޤס2312ǡˤȸԤμθդȤߤ롣

ƥӤ򸫤٤ܤΰäƤīοͤʤɤ򸫤ȡʰ˻Τ򴶤ޤԸʿȡƤäɤȤФƤ⡢ʤ꤬ȤȸʤΤȡʪɤϡҴŪȽǤʤФʤޤɤȤȰȤİĵ󤲤ƤȤΤۤ¿СȸäƤ褤Ǥ礦άˡϡʿΩŷǤäƤΤפäƤ餤ΤǤޤˤⴶǤʪ᤮ȻפޤʬδŤڤ󤺤ȤȤϡˤϵʤΤǤϤ褯ȸ뤱ɤ⡢ǤϤʤΤǤʿʻ顢֤ϰäɤäפȸ褦ˤƤޤ
ά ȤΤϡ餱ԤơļԤ롣ϤɤˤʤʤΤǤԤǡԼԤ񤹤ΤϡȻפޤ󤫡232-3ǡ

Ԥϡܿͤˤϡ򿢤դ붵餬ɬ(240ǡˤǸ롣ޤѤǿɤ餰櫓ס237ǡˤǤϡ塢Ǥä褿ʹ֤ʬǴˤޤäƤޤäפԤΤԤ˸äȤ롣϶鳦ǤƱͤ餷Ѥˤˡ٤ΦˤΦξ塢ά򤷤ܤϰΤȤȤ򡢾餺äáǤס237ǡˤȻŦ롣

μ㤤ͤΤȤϲʬޤ󤫤顢줿Ȥ򤽤ΤޤޱݤߤˤƤޤƤ㤿ܤä򤹤ΤӷΤǤ櫓ǡŪǤäѤɤɤȿˤʤäƤƤޤޤ237ǡ

6ϤȤơܿͤλ̿(261ǡˤꤷơԤϸ

ܤμ㤤ǯˤƸȤޤäȡڥޥޡΩäƶĥꡢȤä顢Ʋȡ֤ɤפȼĥƤۤΤö̤Ϥɤ˹ԤäƤޤäΤǤضڤ򿿤ľˤơΤܿͤΤ褦ΩäƤʤ⤤ƤȡʬˤʤޤؤⲿΤƤƤޤäơˤФͤƤȡʬˤʤΤǤϤʤǤ2612ǡ

Ǹ7Ϥϡܤ򿴤鰦ƤȤ̤ס266ǡˤϤޤ롣ԤϽ񤤤Ƥ롣

繥ä㡢ܤ򿴤鰦Ƥ㤬˴ʤꡢܻȤοۤФ鼡ؤ⤫ǤϾäƤޤ267ǡ

ʤԤ夵ΤϢ礤ͤäȤȤ顢ԤΤ㤵ϺǸޤǤοͤ򹥤ˤʤʤäȤʤͤĻҡˡ˴ʤˡϤͤ͡ҤȤͤȤդ礦ʤס267ǡˤȸä
ܽκǸΡܤϻθζס269ǡˤǡԤϼΤ褦˽񤯡

ܤϻθζǤˤܤѡĹĤޤɤ餬ο;פƤ뤫ȤȡɤȤ񤤡ɤƱǤȾʬȾʬǤάˡܻλˤȤäơ餷Ǥꡢοƻɸ򤳤館Ƥ줿ȸäƤǤϤޤ󡣻θ٤λؿˤͿƤޤοˤϡĤȤƤδݤδݤȤϤᤤƤޤ272ǡ

ʾ塢ʤĹʤäܽɤơܿͤΤҤȤȤơϼʬȤѤʤäˤĤƤκᰭܿͤ˿դץסWGIP)ˤޤޤ٤餵줿ȡޥߡαƶǡѿͤ񤤤ΤɤȿʤȤΤϡʤ餪ʤΤ¤ʤ68ˤʤäơΤ餯Ǥ롣Ǥ٤Ϥʤ̿¤ꡢΤϤθ¤ԤȻפɤܤ˽йäͤǤ¿οͤ˰ɤ򴫤᤿

յܽϡ꡼ܤθؤ꣱פȤۤ8ǤƤ뤽No.Ǥ餷ˡۤΤΤɤǤߤȻפäƤ롣
ڸ˾ᤴѿͽư򸫤ĤˡNHKƥӤ¤夤Ƥ롣
ڻ͡˥ɥͥΩǰư褬뤬ɥͥΩܤɤۤ礭׸褯ʬ롣ߥޡʵ졦ӥޡˤǤܿʹѤɤξѥ饪ξȥ륳ξ
ڸưʡֹνŤߡԡѤβֺ餫 סˤ򸫤Ƥ⡢ܤˤְäƤʤäȤʬ롣ưо줹벦ϡפȤդȤäƤ롣

򽧼ϺʿǤ

mҼ١ʿĬʸˡɤ򤤡򤤤ȤФǤ⡢ä򤤤Ȼ䤬פäΤϡҤ򽧼ϺˤʿǤȤ򵭽ҤθĽ

Υϥå결򡢻Ϥä٤ϥݤȤ롣Ǥ⿽櫓ʤפäƤ뤷ʤϤ⤢뤬ޤĤϼ꤬ᤤΤǤ롣ȤεϺʤʤȤǤäΰϺäΤǤ롣Ϥޤεǻ˻ĤäƤǡֻĹʤä礦ʤġ餬󤶤󰭤Ȥ򤷤פȤȤ٤ΤȤäϤǤϤʤषֻĹΤĤפޤĤΤ˶ϫȤΤäƤּʬȤʤˡ򤤤פȡפ˼꤬ФơϺβʤĤ򤤤ȤҤäѤƤޤäʬܤdzΤ⤷ʤȤ򤤤ͤäΤȡϼήʤ夦οҤǤ롣꤬Ф餱ˤޤäƤΤ򡢵˲ƼϺʤܤȤƤ(199ǡ

ܰʹǤϺβ̤򽧼ϺͤƤȤҤäѤƤޤäʤɡõƤ⡢Ҥ֤ơۤˤϤʤܿͤäƤ褦ˡʡҤϼήãͤͻζǷʡΤߡ򻳻ʤΤηƤ롪
ǷʤΤȤˤĤƤϡҼȤƱƬǼΤ褦˽񤤤Ƥ롣

ۻΡػήʤĤʤ󤸤夦(1983ʸ麽սˤˡΤ褦ʰäΤäƤ롣ήȤΤϡʤĤޡͤǹԤƤƻǡλȤλؽʤ֤ƣϺԵʤʲǸȤ˻줿ΤȤǤ롣λ˿ȤƱԤƤϤ᤯ʤȤ󤽤ؽɤϸ޿ͤŨݤʤɡ郎ڤžݤ̵ǰκǴʤȤȤ
򵷤ξˡǷʤȤΤϤơƹλƤ⡢γʤդʤʤ鷺ؽɤλӤΤȤˤ餷ƤϻԤ椫ĤƤǤä֤ʤϤ־ƹᤸ㡣Ҥסʤ̵ۤˡĤϤ뤪ʤ߽ФƾƹᤷؽɤλΤξˤʤ줿λϹ̤ΤȤ˼ʤäϤҤȤޤʤ֤Ǥ褫򤻤סȤʤФäǤ롣ˤƤ⡢ĤˤƤ⡢ʤФʤʤͳäάˡ
о줹뵤ΤϤǷʤʤ򤫤μ㤭λѤǤ롣Τ˶򻳤ܻҤꡢ񵪤ȾΤҤǼȤΤߤȡήΤʤãͤǡι⸫Ͼ춿°Ƥ餷911ǡ

Ҥʬ줿̿ʾμ̿Ʊɽʤơɽ˺ܤμ㤭ΰäƱ񤭻ϤƤȤ¬Ǥ褦ˡҤȤ“η㤷”㡦ǷʡʤΤγ羭ߡ򻳻񵪾Ȥ

Ҥ򽧼Ϻ“ܹ”򤷤Ƥ롣򽧼ϺޤҤ򽧼Ϻϡ̤ΤȤǡòˡ򽧼ϺٿĬʸˡ74ˤäƤ롣

ͧͤϼϺᤫַرʤҤġ򶵤Ƥפä졢󤪴ꤤޤȼ򤹤ޤְˤʤȤפȸäȤ

“”ΤȤꡢ򽧼ϺҤ餽μͳåȤϤˡҤλפޤޤο餻褦ʬϼʬοΤ褦ˡ
ͤΤȤϽʪƥӱʤɤ̤ƤΤʤʤȶ˴ͤʤΤˤƤ⡢ʤĤ򤤤ȤҤäѤƤޤäҤδ顢ҤäѤ줿Ϻδ顢򤤡

̣ۣʵ

Yahoo˥塼򸫤Ƥ顢ĥҤϤäͤΤĤ꤫ذȤϥ󥰥饹٤ĥҥǰפȤФܤä褿򸫤ȤͤΤĤ꤫ذȤϥ󥰥饹פȸ줿ΤĥҤǡäΤıѼȤФפäʸɤǤߤΤ褦³Ƥ

ĥҤλ˰夻ʤȯ˵̵ͤʿ񤤤֤ͭ̾ϤꤹǤϡפȤȽФƤ롣Ĥ󤬸åɽıѼ(35)ФѵҤǰ夷Ȥ񤤤ФƤĤ˰򤷤ݤˡ󥰥饹򳰤ʤä

ɤ߿ʤ뤦ˡͽۤϴˤĤ줿ºݤϻͽۤȤȿФˡͤΤĤ꤫ذȤϥ󥰥饹פȸäΤϡĥҤΤۤäĤפΤǶƻԤܸϤֲˤʤä褦ΤɤޤʤǤʤ褦ʡμε˽й礦ȡ;פδ򶯤롣䤬Ԥʤ鼡Τ褦˽񤯡

ĥҡذȤϥ󥰥饹٤ĥҥǤ塪סʤɤ餬ɤ夷Τ褯ʬʤߤˡ夵줿ΤĥҤʤ顢ɽĥҤˡذȤϥ󥰥饹٤ĥҥǤ塪פȤʤȤˤĥҤϤäͤΤĤ꤫ذȤϥ󥰥饹٤ĥҥǰפǤϡΤ褦˸򤬤ɼԤ¿Ϥ

򽧼Ϻ̿Ž줿̵ʥɤΤ

S1ܰʹס̹򽧼ϺΤäˡ١ʹ̼ҡԤ򽧼ϺƤդ򽧼ϺΰäĶơơ򡢿ȡ򿦡ͧط뺧ꡢῩ֡βܤȶ뤲礭ʶɤäƤ⤽ηƤԤοʪŷʪʤˤ֤ġͿפȤϤ褯뤳Ȥ򽧼Ϻ㳰Ū¸ߤΰͤ

򽧼Ϻ¿̾֡ʥ٥ȥ졼֥åƥ㡢ϥСۡɡС륻ǥ٥ġݥ륷ˤꤳʤͤ80ФǾäƤΤϥݥ륷911S򽧼Ϻή(Ĭҡꤷ̿ˤΥݥ륷Sμ̿ǺܤƤȤȤΤäΤǡäζ̳Ź̤ȯ

줬夷Τˤơ“̵”ϡפ礤ݥ륷ΤФΩ򽧼Ϻμ̿դΤդϼ̿Τ(̿ˡ⤦դϤ˷ǺܤƤʼ̿ˡȤΤΥݥ륷μ̿ξˤϡԡTOHAN)ȯԤǤؤS2ŹƱȯȤ򼨤٤äŽäƤǤϤʤ ⡢褯ʬ褦ˡ岼ޤŽäƤ롪ֹŹǤС“̵”ʤȤϤʤϤ֤󡢡֤ʤȡ“ݥ륷”ФƼפȤޤǸäƤ뤫ΤʤŽʤݥ륷褱Ž٤
Ȥǡޤ뤫ɤƤߤĤʥ“̵”ΰ…

80Фˤƥݥ륷֤餻…ϼֹ äˡ֥ݥ륷ե λ̴Ǥ⤢ޤƤФä…򽧼Ϻϴְ㤤ʤܰʹפ

In every fault there is folly. English Proverb
٤Ƥ٤΢ˤ꡽Ѹθ

յ򽧼Ϻμ̿ǤҤۤˤԽΡ򽧼Ϻ١ʿ޼ҡˤäƤ뤬⤤ɽˤ򽧼ϺGݥѥϤưػҤ˹­ȤǤ“ʹ”̿ȤƤˤμ̿ˡ

ָŤֲפΤ

h1117ˡ14ޤǡοض᤯ǥѥ쥹ָŤֲפ줿ˤαͤä80̾ŤǤĹ̳Ǥäء³ؤΤ줾δطԡ˳سز̾20̾3ʬơ줾λפФϪ
5ʬΰλ֤򤤤ΤֻĶǤä餷䤬Ҳ𤵤ƤΤϡMIT鵢񤵤줿ľäΤʤ˿Ѹ컨νɾǽ¸夲ȡ˿Ѹ졦ʸظθ򤷤Ƥ줿ؤθΡرؤ鿷ߤؤ˰Ҥ줿ФäƱˤϢˤʤäơɤˤҲ𤯤ꡢʹߡȤϤäȸ֤Ǥäȡ2000ǯ4顢ؤ³ơζ̳Ǥؤ줿ȡľ夫1γǡإ쥭󸦵פ򳫺Ť褦ˤʤäȡ2002ǯˤϡؤˡ6زعݲ(Linguistics and Phonetics 2002)μżԤˤʤ줿ȡ쥭󸦵ݥ󥿡(International Lexicon Reserch Center)¾Υ󥿡ιۤäƤ줿ȡؤ줿Ȥ¿βʸ񡦸줿ȡ䤿رôζϤΤȤˡܳؽѿˤβ꡼ǥ󥰥ץפ˱礵줿ȡƸزʼǤ2ǯ20022006ˡĹرѸظĹ24ǯ20082012̳hf줿ȤʤɡؤˤʶӤΰüҲ𤵤ƤƤ줿5ʬǤ­ʤۤɤζӤοä

ȡּŤפİʤ顢ȤؼԤΰ礵˴Ǹ˱ͤɽʤäƤˤΩˤʤäͽ̤ꡢ4IJȤʤäΩɤʡޤּŤֲפäβŤ줿ȯͤΡؤλפɤääĹǯˤ錄äƸθ֡ƱνǤäȤθؤȤ羸

յ۲ˤϡMITΤ̿سز濴Ȥ¿Ȥή򼨤ޤޤʤ̿Ͱ̡褷򼨤ŤʡŸ줿

ܷNHKʥ󥵡Τ

ΤΤȤNHKܷʤʥ󥵡47ˤ14롢ıԻνëءҶش֤żǡ23ˤζ򿨤äε16ī줿ƻˤСƵԤϡäƼ򿶤ʧˤζ11ʬ֤ˤ錄äƿ³פưƥīϡANN 1116()1316ʬۿ򸫤Ƥ⡢ʸˤ񤤤Ƥ롣ܸ줬ΤǤϤʤʤȤ⡢QŪˤζ11ʬ֤ˤ錄äƿ³פʤɤȤȤϹͤˤ˰ޤǤ⡢“³Ū”ȤȤǤϤʤΤ11ʬ֤ˤ錄äƿ³פƤȤ顢ﳲԤȤʤä“”Ȥ褦ʤäȤϸ򿶤ʧ11ʬפ⡢ż֤ǡθޤޤˤʤΤȤ⤽̤ʤΤϤϤʤȻפο¬Ȥ顢QʽȲᤵ褦ܸ줷񤱤ʤʹƻԤ

ܸƤ֤ܥʥ󥵡ϻιʥʥ󥵡äƵǤʤ顢ͤϼȿͤѤΤΤʤޤDZġۤ夲褿ˤΩ֤ˤƼäƤޤɤǤ⤽ϼǤ⡢ְޤפȤϤʤֿ͡פѤʤ졢ʬ򼺤ۤɤοϤʤݥ¤˹ޤ줿奮ꥷγʸǤϤʤ򼫿ȤΤ(gnothi seauton)ʬʤʤɤ褯ΤꡢʤȻפм̤øȤޤᤤȻפаΤȤ¾ͤȤθʤɤФˤʤȤʬǼʬ򥳥ȥ뤹٤ʤȤפä򤷤褿ǡĹ֡㤤ҳ˰Ϥޤ줿ض򤷤褿νҳ򵯤ȤϤʤäĤ줿࿦ޤǤΤ2ǯ4֤⤽μϵʤ

Wo Wein eingeht, geht Scham aus.
ѤФƹԤɥĥ

 ڸﵭۤθ塢ʬαǼ줿ͳ

饤14ȥ٥åȤοͤ

ǶϤޤƥӥ˥塼ʹ򸫤ʤʤääǥֿ¡פƻƤʤȻפ뤳Ȥʤʤäݤ󥿡ͥåȤư襵ȤΤֳۤΤʾפΨ⤯ʤäƤ褦˻פ
ȤСƥӤǤϡưα򸫤뤳ȤϤǤʤäΥ饤14ʥ٥åʩκǹƳԡˤ3˻ıۤǹԤäֱ̹ͤΥǤ

ܿۤˡ˴ޤΰ򤷡ˡ顢٥åʸŪ“”(katag)£줿ΤϡưŪä“”ϡֿηɰաפ̣ΤȸˡưǡİֳؼԤˤϥ٥åȤˬơƤ뤫ʬܤdzΤƤ¿Υ٥åȿͤƿȼ򤷤Ƥ롣ܤˤϡƿȼԤθĴ٤Ƥ褦Ǥ뤬ϰͤιⴱˤΤȤʬ𤷤Ƥʤ褦顢İƻطˤϡºݤ˸Ϥˬ䤷ơ¤餫ˤƤΤȤ򤤤Ĥ⤪ꤤƤ롣סաˤȶʤƤ롣

ϤäˡλıۤǹֱŤȤˡ߷äθ§ؤƤ롣פȸäȿȯ褦ʤߤˡʼΤ٥åȿͤ˲򤷤Ƥ뤫ưϤ褯Ƥ롣ޤ餬̵ʤळΥ٥åȿͤ󤯤ͻƤư򸫤뤳ȤǤˡ

ʤȤʼ˴ؤơɤФ褤ΤˤϤ褯ʬʤĤΤξƿȼ򤹤٥åȿͤ򸫤뤿ӤˡϸΤܤη줬ήΤФ¿“ʿ¥ܥ”ƤޤäƤޤǤμʬ̵ʢΩġʻ˺Τ٤٤ʤΤ򿿷˹ͤơ餫ιư򵯤ȻפäƤ롣 

ɵ1ۤʤˡˤĤƤIJɧꡢۤγνδ餬ʤ줬ˤΤȤơ饤ˡФƤǤꡢĻιԤżƤ褦˻פ롣
ɵ2˿ǯη̶彣ǥɡǾӲΡ»񸷤ư褬롣饤ˡιֱκݤ˹Ԥ줿ΤΤ褦䤫ΩˤΤ礤ˡ٥åȤο͡ξƿȼʼΤˤ뻦ʤɤˤǺޤƤ븽ϤϤ۾

ڸۥ饤ˡιֱǤ٤Ƹ뤳ȤǤ롣

ڸͤ²Ĥ˻˽ԤäƤưˡ

a couple ofɤΰ̣ۣ椵

m2Ѹ“a couple of”Ūˤϡפΰ̣ǡɤ餫ȸХꥫѸǡޤĤפΰ̣ǡɤ餫ȸХꥹѸǡ줾줬Ѥ뤳ȤΤѸؽԤϾʤʤ󡢡֤ɤ餫ȸСפâ񤭤򤷤ʤФʤʤ褦ˡϰǤäơꥫѸǤĤפΰ̣ˤʤ뤳Ȥ뤷ꥹѸǤפΰ̣ˤʤ뤳Ȥ⤢롣Τɤΰ̣ѤƤ뤫ϤҤȤʸ̮ˤʤȤϸΤΡꥹѸǤϡĤפΰ̣ˤʤ뤳Ȥ¿…ˡȤСGoogleǽäΤΤΰ̣ʬ

I drive a Mustang and a Chevy pick-up truck. Ann drives a couple of  Cadillacs, actually.
They'll have a couple of  new houses by the end of Friday.

ܿͳؽԤȤƤϡ嵭ƱѸθˡΰ㤤ΤäƤ˱ۤm1ȤϤʤפΤ˸ˤϡ two ѤơȤСϤ۲ȲƤƤפʤThey were building two new houses there.Ȥۤ褤They were building a couple of new houses there. ȡפȿۣˤʤǽ뤫

ƱGoogleǽäϥꥫѸIowaΤΡˤǤꡢtwo a couple of ΰ㤤褯ʬˤʤäƤ롣

With spring beginning, new construction starts up throughout the City. On the west side of Vinton, in the Westridge subdivision, construction is underway on two new houses across the street from each other. We're not sure which house will finish first, but this is a pleasant change from last year's new construction. There were only a couple of new houses built last year mainly a result of the recent economic downturn. Previously, Vinton had enjoyed several years of double-digit housing starts. We see this as just the beginning of a busy year for the City.

եߥ쥹ǤΡ֤ˤϡס³

֥եߥ쥹ǤΡؤˤϡ١Ȥʸ񤭡եߥ쥹䥳ӥˤŹä㤤ޤˤϡפȤñˡˤϡפݤ뤳Ȥؤλΰ´ɽ
θ塢˥ǥˡɤ3ǯ֥ХȤ򤷤Ȥ˿ʸߤϽǼҶ̳ˤ顢嵭λʸϤɤȤȤǡ᡼äˤСǥˡɤǤϡä㤤ޤפȸäƤϤʤʤǤϡֵҡפϡסֽȰפϡפªŪʰɽǤˤפѤ餷

θ塢᡼ȤäơǥХȤ򤷤ȤΤ´3̾õФν˾嵭ηҤͤƤߤơ̤ȤȤǧǤ
ҤȤ´ϡסʡҡˤȤɤʹִطʥߥ˥ˤۤˤϡŪʡä㤤ޤפϤȶäȽ񤤤褿ä㤤ޤפȸƤä㤤ޤפȤǤʤ餷ιͤϻ˸碌жǡȿǽʤΤ…ƱˤСҤ־ԾФƾԤˬԡסʡᥲȡˤȹͤơФڤܶ뤳Ȥ򶵤ä־Եҡפ“”ȤΤ⤪äɤ“”ν⤹뤬ϤˤϿʤǤ
̤´ϡä㤤ޤפϡŹҤؤ̹ԤΰɽǤꡢˤפʤСˤפֻ򤹤뤳Ȥ뤫ɤȶäȽ񤤤褿Τ餺οͤȤǤ碌밧ˤפȤȤäϤˤȿǤ롣
ޤ3ܤ´ϡȤڤʼʬβ²ͧͤȻפäơˤ٤ݤ褦ˤȶޤפȽ񤤤褿(ʬ뤬˸碌Сϥʥ󥻥󥹤ڤʼʬβ²ͧפˡ̤ܿͤˤפʤɤ¾͹Ե˰뤳Ȥʤɡ̤ơʤȤƱˤСȥ饯ξǤϡ֤ǤФפȰ뤽⤪“Ƥ”Ǥʰ魯Ȥʤɤʤ

ȤˤǤΥХȷиΤΩɤ“Ǿ”줿Τ褦󡢤줬ȸäƤΤǤϤʤǥˡɤΰդ“ʸ”դΩ˻ϵʤȤΩˤäƤ⡢ϡ1,000¤ꤷޤפʸĤΤƱ͡٤뤳Ȥ
ϸäƤǥˡɤΰޥ˥奢ºݤ˸ƤϤʤäޤפŪǡˤפŪǤ“եɥ꡼”ǤȤͤˤΤʤ顢ϤޤǤǥˡΤΤˤƤƤ餤ܼҲϥǥˡɤǤϤʤΤ…󡢥ǥˡ夬ڤˤդ졢ڤǥˡɲʤä̤…

䤬եߥ쥹䥳ӥˤdzФ´ǥˡɤΤΰȴطΤɤϺΤȤʬʤŪĴСճξԤδطΤˤʤ뤫Τʤ
ޤեߥ쥹Ǥ⥳ӥˤǤ⡢ŹˤϡפȸҤˤϡפȱξԤ“ʬ”“˭ʵ”ˤʤΤǤСϤǤȤȤˤƤΡľΤäΤʸڤСʤΤʤ…פȤȤ…

Men are made by nature unequal. It is vain, therefore, to treat them as if thy were equal.James Anthony Froude
   ͤޤˤʿ¤줿ꡢʿʤ뤬ǡ갷̵̤ʤꡣ J.A. եɡ

Ω夲פȤ

 Yahoo˥塼ܼ򸫤Ƥ顢֡иΩ夲פȤʸܤˤĤ򥯥åȡƬˡиϺλȤܤϣиɽȤ뿷ޤ򣱣Ω夲Ȥ᤿פȤä
ɤʤȤΤϵۤɤΡΩ夲סΩ夲פȤܸϤɤˤʤʤȡĤ˻פɽ¿οͤѤС̤θˤʤ뤳Ȥɴ⾵ΤǤפΤθʸˡŪˤְäƤ뤷ɤʤѥεư԰١㡧֥饦Ω夲סˤθ츻Τ褦򺣡¿ΤȤѤƤ롣ˡΤ10󤲤Ƥ

ŹΩ夲ϡ
ݰȤΩ夲
ʡȽΩ夲褦!
ҹΩ夲ޤ.
٥ȥʥǥӥͥΩ夲Ƥͤ
ˡ̳ʡˡץȥΩ夲ޤ
10ǯ23οӥΩ夲
ǥåѤοʰ֥ɤΩ夲
ؤ⥪륹٤Ȥ֥̾DzΣȤΩ夲ޤ
TPPʿηкϢȶθĤؤλȿФȤơˤ⿷ޤΩ夲ͤǤ

ˡΩ夲פѤ褦ˤʤäΤϡ褦ˡѥιĿŪʼ̣ǸСΤ⹥ˤʤʤΤΤ򴺤ƤСΤ“”ʴ롣äơĿͤϤѤʤ褦ؤƤ롣ʤ顢ѥξϡưס¾ξϡΩס϶ȤסȤסŹססȿססȤסʤפʤɤŬѤ롣
嵭Yahoo˥塼ξǤСʤ餭ȡиޤ[]ˡפȸ䤬иͤǤС޼ԤȤƤ“”Τۤɡջ֤θǤ򴶤Ƥ餦ˤޤספΤۤѤ
ǸˡμϤǤ⡢ֿͻѰΩ夲סֿѰΩ夲פʤɤȡΩ夲פ˻Ȥ뤬ϻȤʤֿͻѰ񡦿Ѱ֤[ߤ롨ȿ]פʤɡŪʤʸΤۤ񤭤äɤ

ְۤʤäס̤Ρפdifferent

I met three different people today.ȤYou should understand these three different learning styles. ȤΤ褦ʸܿͤǤʤѸȤͤν񤤤äꤹʸˤФи롣“̩”ʤȤthree different peoplethree different learning styles Ȥ“Ū”ʸʤʤ顢“different”פthree people three learning styles ȸнʬ
ƤߤСʡפȤʹƤĴŪɽˡϡܸǤ褯ʹΤ3ͤΰۤʤä[̤]͡פȡ͡ס̤ΰۤʤä[̤]ؽפȡ̤ؽ…ƤʤŪˤɤäƤȤͤ뤳ȤǡѸθ촶ܸθ촶ᤫƤ…

 ڸﵭʸ񤤤ƤȤפФ

ܿͤȡּҲ(social order)

ĤƤƱνΥꥫͤ᡼äΥꥫͤܤ˽ǤߤưִưΤϡܿͤsocial order (ҲˤŤ󤸤̱ȤȤǤפȽ񤤤褿Ͽ̡ȡʡ츶ȯΤκݤˤ⡢ޤȼɱءëؤʤɡ¿θξǤܿͤŤ٤ˤ⤽˴

ȤƸСΤˡܿͤϼҲŤ󤸤̱פȻפ줬ޤǤ礭ˤʤäΤ¤󥿡ͥåȾˤϤΤȤ褯ƻǤ⸫Ĥʡˡ
ꥫ“ƥ”ʺˤܤϿ̡ȤƻꥫοʹˤlootingάåˤȤ줬ФʤäפȤ򡢶òȶˡʬưǾҲ𤷤Ƥ롣ˤϤޤ֡ʥꥫΡεﳲ饹⡼˥󥰥˥塼ˤlootingάåˤȤ줬ȽФפȸäơФäƤѤǤФƤ롣⤢ʤ

  Ȥή줿5,700Ĥ¿ζˡ25ߡˤάååˤ鷺˻֤줿ʤɤȤƻʺư表ˤߤˤ⡢ޤܿͤι̱褯ɽƤΤ褦ʤȤϡ̤ܿͤˤΤȤۤι񡹤οͤˤȤäƤ“”“ʤ”Ȥ˻פ褦ʤȤ桹ܿ͡ʤľʿͤ⤤뤬ˤˤϡʤȤȤư٤ΤܿͤΤ“¤”ϡְ㤤ʤ椬ڡͼŪ׹ˡʹѤʤɤ礷ƽ夬äΤΤϤơܿͤ˸ƸؤäɤΤ̤οͤŷҡ维äơ˼ưˡƱܿͤȤơơηɰդɽᤤꤦ
ʾ夬̤Υ᡼뤫פФꡢͤꤷȤ

Geduld! Gedult! wenn's Hertz auch bricht!G.A. Bürger
  Ȥ¡ȤǦѤ٤ӥ륲

ڸﵭۡ硽ˡֿ֤ͤʤƤ󤻤ˤơ٤ޤ±ʤľˤƲפȤ뤽ޤ翹ͤΤưʪؼE.S.⡼ܿͤ˸ڤơľǫ顢ܤǤפȸäʽŵ

˴ҡʤˤ줿Τȡ



Ͼ19ǯ[1944ǯ]9ޤ줿ǯ10а㤤ηؤ֤ơ³ɤиɶƬҡɤѤΤΤäʤ櫓ǡ褽ΤΤεϤʤθλĿ˾ƤդΤϡ޺ȤСƤκʤι󤵡Ĥޤꡢɤ1ͤȤưäȸ롣

λϡ򤷤ܤȰɤȶ뾮عդ˱ƶ졢36ǯҾʼФơܤηϤۤιǤäѤȤ򤷤äƤ͡פʹ䤷ȸäۤ褫ä⤷ʤζ򤫤ʻŤ˱Ƹä
ܤʼϡ餪Τˡ²Τˡ̿äɡ褽ιǤ⡢ĤʼΡ̵񹳤ʼΤ򻦤Ȥϡ㤵Τ¤ʤä衣סäȡζƱǡŨǤäԤǤ⡢򿶤ä褿ʡ¦ˤʤäȤ̣ä񹳤ꤷʤԤϻʤä衣פդä褦˵롣

㤬äơҤƤ줿Τ60ǯʾвᤷ꤬פФܿͤʼΤȾŨλȤζƤ줿Ȥϡθλܡʸ˴ѡܿʹѤ礭ܤ̤ΤιͤϡΤ褦ʡĹȯWikipediaΰѡˤȵˤ롣αƶäΤʤ



ΤˡܤξϡŨפּʬζפȤƻѤ뤳ȤŨǤäԤǤ⿮ѤοͤͭǽǤС٤򿦤˽뤳Ȥ̤ʤΤˡܤʬΡŨפä15徭Ĵɤä1򸫤ǤʬĴϤθ塢̡ߡ²İˤޤǤʤä¾Ʊͤ˽Ѥ줿̵ˤ㡧dzԤΤȤϤΤ˳澭̷Ҽ¾ιǤϡŨפŪˤϡѽ褺ˡɤΤ̤ä

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Ρ־ζפιͤΩΩäơ찡򸫤ȡܤʼϻĵԤäɤȤ֡ι񤫤٤⡢Τʤʬϡ¤ɤʤΤǤϡĤȻפʤȤפʤ顢YouTube 򸫤Ƥ顢˰Ѥ褦3ư˽йäϡ줬ˤʼολѤȿ롣ȿŪۤ˶ŤǤޤäܿ͡Ի˴Ѥ¤ǤܿͤˤϡȤ⸫Ƥ餤ư

յŨȤäꥹͤ¿ߤäδפʪפˡ
յ۾˼Ѥư褫ʬ뤳Ȥξ̤ΦηͤϡƻɤοǻĤͤȤȤƱ˦褷˺ƤϤʤʤ

ڸﵭۤȤǻפФȡ٥ȥʥ˴ڹ񤫤ɸ줿ڹʼΤϥ٥ȥʥͽ˶˰ƻĵԤʤȤ򤷤ơ˺ޤ٥ȥʥǤϡLai Đại HanפȸƤ֤ο30,000ͤȤ⤢롣ˤ˴ؤư褬롣ִڹ̱Ф˸ƤϤʤư衪פȤ̾դƤ롣
ڸﵭۡȽɰְؤˤĤƤư褬ͤˤʤ롣ޤڹ˴ѤˤĤƤư褬ͤˤʤ롣ʣԤȤɬǸΤΤ礤Ūμ̿礤˻ͤˤʤˡ֥ƹפȤɽˤĤƤư򻲾ȡ
ڸﵭִۡפȤΤΤȤ¸
ڸﵭۡܤ˻ĤӤοפȤưˤйäܿͤɬפʤȤϡˤĤϤĤȤ

 Man is explicable by nothing less than all his histpry. R.L Emerson
   ͤϤˤʤäƤ󤺤ǽ鷺ޡ

塢ܾϢϢ񷳺ǹᴱ(GHQ) ƤӽФäƻʤɤޤ᤿ŪۤζڤӽäΤϢμ˭٤Ǿ鴪ͥ줿ĹξĹɸ롣ʤGHQϡ־ϥȤϰ㤤Ũåä򼫷ʼȤƻȤκԤȤˡȿǤڤʥǤ뤿˶ػߤˤ٤ǤפȽҤ٤ФƾĤϡ֥κ򻦳Ƥ롣줳κԤǤ롣ŬŬƯͿƤ롣˶Ƥơ줾ǽϤºŤ褦Ȥ̱ۤǤס˽ƱȤäƤ뤬Ǥϥ󥰤˴٤äˤϥˤƤޤƨ褦Ȥפȿȯˤ꾭϶ػߤ뤳Ȥ򤹤뤳ȤǤ

ܤǤ롩

ʿ19ǯ[2007ǯ]ܤ˵“”ͤǺȡɾȤʿʤؤäYouTubeʺưˤʹΤ뤳ȤФä򸫤ʬ褦ˡǤϡñʤ“”ǤϤʤܤִŪǤˤϤɤ褤פȤ꤬ӻŪʤΤˤʤäƤ뤽μ¹ԤΤˤϼʤФʤȤϡܤ졢񶦻°ˤʤä顢ܤΰ¸ץ饤ɡ̿⻺ƤʤʤפǸ롣 

ƸŪ˶äˡʿ¥ܥ¿ܿͤ⡢лä򿿷ʹС¿ܤФޤΤǤϤʤ̱ˤʤäƤ顢ڤ⡢⡢ս⡢⡢ĤޤꡢΤۤȤɤߤϡޤԤäƤʤ褦Τ̱“ĥ”Ȥơߤ̱ޤѤʤäΤΤϡȿޤᡢ¾ʤ̹̱Ͱͤȷͳסľ͡IJɧȤͤμꤿʤˡ¼ٰ졢ʿϺˤ椬֤줿줷Ω˰٤ȤȸСζ˵ŤϤ᤿ܿͤϿ¿줬̱ܿؤδԤȤʤäɽ줿ȤǤʤ褦


ܿͤϤ⤦Ť٤ޥߤξȤȶߤ򤫤ФФ꤬ʤŤȤ虜ΤȤꡢŷϼԤ
(Heaven helps those who help themselves.)ܤΤǤܤΤܿͼȤʿθȤꡢֳפͤʤФʤʤͤʤΤޤޤǤȤȤǤС󤫤̾衢ܤ°ˤʤǽʬˤ롣

յ۹桦ʸһʤ֤襤ۤϡܤ٤äƤ뻰ĤʬϤܤοबϤޤäΤǤϤʤȽΩƤȡˡˡս硢ڡˤܤϻΤ˴٤äˡƹܤλۤ򶯲ƤꡢܤƹߤˤƤ뤬ƹͤϿѤε˺ƤϤʤɽŪˤܤٱ礷Ƥ뤫Τ褦˸뤬ºݤܷٲƤ롢軰ˡҤ¿ȤҤƤ뤳Ȥʬ褦ˡα餫ǡȤι¤ޤäƤ롢äơܤοबϤޤäƤΤǤϤʤȼĥƤ뤽ʤʤ“ʬ”…֥Ȥι¡פʤɤȡ¾Υ򴬤źˤƤ뤬Ūˤϡȴڹʤīˤ…

īع̵ȿФջɽ

иϺΤȤ˽Ϸפ餷濿ҡʸꡣ٤ϼ餬˽פơǧĤͿ٤3ؤ٤ǧġϤ礤ơ٤ǧġܤζιԤƻϰŤ…

ϡīع̵פǤ⡢ɤ˲Ȥä򤢤ʹˤ볰ͳعǤ⡢īع̤ͳҤ٤롣
īع˹̱ǶȤȤȤϡ桹Ͱͤܿͤīפ졢򶸤碌줿ͤȤβ²οͤο΢ڤ뤳Ȥ˿ʤǼߤȤˤʤ롣īعɤȿ򤷤Ƥ뤫ʤ줬֤ˡïΤƤ뤫ïΤ褦Ȥ켫ΤϾˡȤʸʾʤϤ褯ΤäƤϤζ줷ߤǡޤ̵ȤΤϡְ㤤ʤ˴ळȤȻפפϤʤˤⵯǽ롨ư򻲾ȡ0450-0635˽Ф롣
īعǹԤƤतȿǧʤϵʤäǶ⤬1ߤȤīع˻Ȥ뤳ȤǸȿФ롣īعλҶİۤȤ⡢ع̤ʤɤȤפʤֲİۤפȸΤǤСҶλ顢иܤƤ뤳ȤΤΤͫ٤

̱ηǤȿ򤷤Ƥع˻ȤȤȤƤޤС֤ϡ桹̱Ͱͤ¿ﳲԤȤβ²ο͡˹碌ʤСǤʤȤȤοͤɤۤɿɤᤷŤ򲿽ǯä褿ƤߤȤ褤¾ͻǺѤޤƤϤʤʤȤ

̱ޤԤäĴīعι⹻̵ǧʤǤYes 40,250ɼNo 931ɼȡ̵ȿɤӤˤʤʤۤ¿ʤ̱ޤĴμżԤʤ顢η̤ϤޤäƤΤʤ…ˡ
յ˷ǺܤYouTubeư˽йäȤ⡢ǸޤǤ䤬񤤤Ȥ΢դˤʤϤ
յͥɧμˤʤ롢ĤᤰߤȤξƤ˴ؤʸϤ롣ɬɤʸϤ
յĤᤰߤΤ㤵βļϡְäȤǤʤȤ򶵤عˤФʤȤΤʤ狼뤬פͳīعФʤΤ϶ڰ㤤Ȼפȸ줿ȡˡĤˤϰְäȤǤʤȤ򶵤عˤФʤפȤȤȡפͳīعФʤפȤȤɽ΢Ρ֤ξؤǤäơ̸Ĥ˹ͤ٤ΤǤϤʤȻϻפ
յ5ޤǽ񤤤ƻפФΤǯ33īʹϡ׹԰٤īǤΤʤ̤ˡդ碌ƤϤʤޤפʤɤȽ񤤤ƤϤޤˤŪʤΤθ¾
īΤΤܤںߤīͤīع̤⹻勞ˤ褦ʸˤ꤬פȤ褦ĴʸϤˤ⤷ФнФ魯
ڸﵭ1
򸫤Ĥ⹻̵٤2010ǯ٤ܹԤޤ̤īع̤ŬѤ줺Ҥɤ⤿Ρسؤָ٤ݸԤˤ礭ʷкŪô򶯤Ƥ뿼ʾ³ƤޤפȽ񤤤Ƥ뤬ȿΤ˹̱ǶȤʤȤϡسؤָ٤פ뤳ȤȤ̸Ĥ˹ͤ٤Ȥ졢Ĥᤰߤ鷺13СˤΡسؤָ٤ΤϤɤι񤫡褯ͤƤߤ뤬褤
Ʊưٱ礹ͤϡʸʾʤ˽ФǡػΩعˡ٤ǤϡسͳعޤơƤˤĤƹ٤ǤϤʤ٤äƤޤˡ餷ơμΤбˡȿ԰٤ǤϤʤȻפޤǤʸʾʤȤơƳǤϤޤ󤫡פ䤦Ƥ롣ϾQŪ˸ƤˡפȿˤޤǴƤǤȤϸäƤϤʤ꤬η򸫤ơξʿ¤«Сīعˤ⡢ˡפ˴Ťơ̵¹Ԥ٤ϤޤλǤϤʤϢοͼﺹűѰѰ顢ܤФױȤʸ⸫뤬īīعԤäƤ붵ʤӤġͤСϢפΡͼﺹűѰѰפΡ㤤̾Ȥ롣
ڸﵭ۵īعȾĹˤ錄äơعθˡ򤷤Ƥ¤⤢ư򻲾ȡˡ
ڸۡīع̵ǸȿСפꤹư˽йä;ˡ
ڸۤθ塢īع̵ȿФջɽ(³ˡפ񤤤ˡ

ʪݤפäƤɤʤΡ

긵ŻҼ“ͷ”ܤƤ˿¼ŵ“clotheshorseʪݤפƤΤ˵ŤʪݤסޤƽܤˤܸʬϤСʪݤפȤʤꡢѤʪפȤΤʤ餽ΰ̣Ǥ롣뤤ϡʪݤפ褯Ǥ롣
Ʊŵθˤʤäؽ±ѼŵʽǡˤκѤ褿Τ褦ǡΤޤޤ줬20ǯĹˤ錄äƷǺܤƤ뤳Ȥˤʤ롣ŤʤȤȤ϶Ȥ
clotheshorse”ȤϺμ̿Wikipediaѡˤ褦ˡפˡʼѡʪפΤȤȤƤϤʤΤμ̿򻲾ȡˡ
ƱŻҼäƤ̤μҤΤΤϡʪݤⴳʤݤפǺܤƤ롣

濭ﶵ繾Ϻ˻פ

ΤΤȤʸ(113ˤˡ濭50ˡ81ˡļ(88)(86ˡĹǷ81ˡⳬ(80)ŷŲʸϤƼ줿
޼ԤΰǤϡ涵ʳؼԤȤƤϡΡ٥ޤϺǤɤʾޤ⤷ʤǤܹ̱ΰ͡ܤǤäȸ椷ƤԤˤȤäƤϡ礦ָɤʽִ֤ǤꡢŲʸϤĺδϰ˺뤳ȤʤȻפޤȤդҤȤ礭ζ˶˼޸ʳʤǻ᤬󥿥ӥ塼Ǹäդ⤳ޤǡʹƤƤޤȤ˵ɤäο椬ܤ礭ʸؤʤޤȤ˻ǰʤ顢涵ȯΤ“Ū”ʬϤۤȤɤΥޥߤΰդ˥åȤƤ롪ư05:457:35򻲴ǡ

ǻפФΤƱΡ٥ޤޤ繾ϺΤȤϡϡ̱ԤǤꡢ̱˾븢ҤȲʹѤǧʤפȤơʸϤμϤݤ Ρ٥ޤեܤΥ쥸ɥ̡뷮ޥɥϼޤƤʤ顢ʬϹ̱ǶŤƤؤ´伫ʬʸؤǤ줿ܤȤ“ħ”μͿϵݤȤλ˻礭ʰ´Ф롣̱פɸ֤᤬äˡʸ̤ˤϡ̾ηĤιȷȤΤΰ´ͳǤ⤢äʤʤ顢ƱϤϡʥݥ쥪1ꤷϤǤꡢޥɥȤϥե󥹸ǡפȤַ̣ġפ顢ηϤϥȥեʤ羭פȡ֥եפʤ־פȤˤϤޤˤʤäƤꡢDz̤ꥨʤֵΡפޤϡַ߻ΡפΡǽʬŪΩռƤ򤤤Τܤϡɱܤμ㤤ܿͤμߡĤѿȻפäƤ롣ơܤϡɱؤλִԤäʤʤƯȹͤƤ롣פȯȤäοʪɤ¾ΤΤʤַķϡפƤɤΤ“礭ʵ”뤳1ĤǤ⡢繾᤬ëʰذλֿۡŪʸ͡פȤ̾ι±12͡(쥹ȼҡ1996)1ͤ˵󤲤Ƥ뤳Ȥ礭Τ롣ˤ衢涵ȤϹоȤοʪҤäȤȡоȤϻˤ礭ǤΤʤ…ʤߤˡ繾ϡβפθƤӳݤͤΰͤϡ᤬ƱθƤӳݤͤǤ뤳Ȥȡ쥸ɥ̡뷮ϡ̾ηĤιȷϡϤȤ򡢺ǽ“”Ȼפä…

To return evil for good is diabolical.L.A. Seneca
˵ؤϰŪʤ꡽ͥ

յ1繾᤬ŷǧ᤺ʸϤݤʹϡե󥹹Ȥΰ²Τݤƥ쥸ɥ̡뷮Ϥݤե󥹤λ͡ȥͥݥߥ奻̡륷 (Népomucène Lemercier)ΤȤ򤹤˻פФΥ륷ƱϤФƼä٤ϡ繾᤬ʸϤФƼä٤ȹƤʤ繾ϺȤʪָܼ
յ繾Ϻؤθڤǻθ򡦴㤤ФŦ¨롣

ڸﵭ1繾Ρ̱פɸ֤ȽʸϤ򸫤Ĥʡ繾ϺϰʺȤפȤ꤬դƤˡޤư⤢äʡ繾Ϻդʿ¼פꤵƤ롣
ڸﵭ۵929λХ˥塼ˤС繾ϡĹĹȶˡսܤˤ뿯άˤطʤˤȤڤΩ򼨤פޤʶȼ̱²ؤȽܤ˸ƤơŪڹȿ̱²ǧΤˤʤäƤ롣פ繾᤬“ȿ”ȤȤϹ֤褯ΤƤ뤳ȤΤǧĤʤ椬ϿҾǤϤʤ(礬ܤڤǤ뤳ȤϡȤСư1Ĥ򸫤ɤʬ롪ˡη˴ؤƤϡͥɧ󤬡繾ϺȿʬҤפꤷơȤ񤤤Ƥ뤳ȤΤäˡս硦˴ؤƤϡٶοƬ롣

ߥ륳ǥࡼMirco Demuro)ȺǷ

1028ˡŷϤȤƹԤ줿ŷľޥ졼ͥꥢޤεߥ륳ǥࡼMirco Demuro)ᥤ󥹥ϾDzϤæ˹ΤΤ餬ŷġĹξŲФʤ ȤΤ٤ǤκǷԤäΤȤΤͤ¿⡢ξǥϡȤΥޡäΡĶήεǤ뤳Ȥ򤳤ͥȺǷϤ褯Ƥ롣ѽ⤽˱뤫Τ褦礭äξŲΤ٤ΤͻҤˡζǮʤä
䤬ưΤϡεΡƻˤȤϤΤȤȤ򡢵餦ȤʤΤǼƤ줿ȤܤؤηɰդȰȤ礭԰٤ääˡܿͤΰͤȤơǥࡼΤκǷˤ˴ưƱ˿ͭ񤯻פäʡϤˤ̵λǥࡼΤκǷ餫顢ʹ֤Ȥ˺ƤϤʤʤڤʤȤǧ줿롣
 
ɵۥǥࡼΤκǷ򸫤ƻפФΤ̱ޤγνԷɤʤưΰԹʤ椬ꤷʸǸڤ

սֿê夲ס

111ˤīʹīˡȤΤĤ礤פȤǡȤʤ褷ߡȡ˥ΤȤ줾ΰոĤƤ줿Ԥμȯܤαޤä

ϡê夲פޤ᤹ʤȻפޤξȤŪꥹȼޤ顢ĤƤ桢ɤŨ褦ͦ륫ꥹŪȤʤФǤޤ󡣤ǰʤ顢Ȥܤˤˤ⸫ޤ󡣤ǤϡɤФιȼʤˤʤ뽬ʿ᤬ǶᡢդطǤϤʤդϳ˲᤮ʤפȯƤޤä礤Dz褷褦ȤåǤܤϡ¸ߤʤפȸĤݤƤޤĤΥơ֥˾褻ܤΩĥĤˤФȻפޤ

츫Ȥ“”äƤ褦ʰݤϰ۸ġޤê夲פê夲٤ޤ᤹ʤȻפޤפȤˤϻȿФʤȤ“ܵ”äƤΤȤפ̵ȤޤŪˤ񤷤ȤǤϤä桦λˡսͭϤäꤵפȤƤ˾äơŰŪƤΤ֤äΤǤˤ踫äȸ롣ˡê夲פˤƤޤä顢1970ǯä顢δĤϤޤꡢƱQޤ̤ä褿Τ³ơΡդطǤϤʤդϳ˲᤮ʤפȤȯսФ뤳ޤǤνФ򸫤¤ꡢȯѤΤ“ͤ褷”⤤Ȥ䡢“”ˤ󡢡դطǤϤʤסᡢ¦ȯۤκˤΡʡ῿աˤ̵뤹櫓ˤϤʤƬˤϡĤޤΤ“礪Ӥ°”ΤΤפȤŪǧ¸ߤΤȤ˰ܿͳؼԤߤƤΤ“”˴ŤơդطǤϤʤդϳ˲᤮ʤפȤȯˤʤäƤ뤳Ȥݤʤ

ϡä礤Dz褷褦ȤåǤפȸ뤬“礪Ӥ°”°פȤȯۤ˴ŤƤϤǸΡĤΥơ֥˾褻ܤΩĥĤˤФȻפޤפȤսϡ⤷줬椬Ū¤ǧ뤳ȤʤšҴŪŪ礦פȤʿ˾ǹԤΤǤСϤǻ⻿줬ݾ㤵ʤΤǤСê夲פΡä礤פΤȤ“¤ʸ”ˤͿ뤳ȤϤǤʤ

Ρ¸ߤʤפȤͤˤϺǽ餫ȿФ¸ߤפ餳“Ǥ”Τ˻䤬٤Ωοʹ֤ǤС椬μԤȡ˲Ȥˤ򡢤줾“Ȥɽ”ȤƲ٤ǤŰŪ碌롣ξǡξԤǼǤ“”뤤“”õƤϤˤޤʤξ񤬤٤ȤϤǤʾϡϤǻ丫ĤϤǤϤޤǤƧ߹ޤʤǤˡ򤤤֤ĤäƤ⡢βˤϷդʤ嵭褦ˡǼǤ“”뤤“”õƤ뤿ˡˢФ礤礦ȤˤäƤսˤϲ褷ʤ椬ˤγиϤΤˤ…ξˤΰջפⵤʤ餳ޤƤΤ…

  ϺǽŪˤϼΤ褦ʡֿê夲פƤƤ롣

ĤͤäǤˤʸкѡݡĤʤ͡ʥ٥ǿͤȿͤΥѥפää礨Ф¿Υͥε̤ƿê夲פФ٤Ǥܴ֤δط䤨ڤäƤ⡢̱֥٥θή³Ƥ٤ʤΤǤ

Ūˤϡ᤬̤̱֥٥ϤƤ⡢ȥ٥ǼŪ˲褷ʤСξ֤οʹָήϼ¸ˤϤ줬ڵˡ桦̰ʹߤβ椬Ф“и”ʤϴڹˤ뤬ˤ򸫤Ф褤󡢤餬Ԥطʤˤ͡ǧʤɤ¸ߤ롣褷ʤޤޤǡ¿̤ʸήǿê夲٤פƤƤ⡢“”ˤʤΤȤΡ˭ҲưϿơפȤոʤǤϾάˤˤⴶ

rebusɡȽʪȽˤΤ

“rebus”Ȥ¸/ríːbəs/ʥ꡼Хˤȯ롣ˡإѡ󥫡¼ŵ٤Ʊ̿ηǰѤƤʬ褦ˡͷӤΰ奨ץȤξݷʸ⤳°롣ѸǤϤФлҶͷӤȤƹޤ뤬Ūˤͤ⤳򰦤롣IOY (= I owe you.) ʤɤϤ褯桹ܤ˿ΤΣĤ򺣤Υ󥿡ͥåȤˤϡȽʪȽ̵˸Ĥ롣ΤΤϤɤ򸫤ʤǡ򤱤

1. fecItion
2. sta4nce
3. gener ation
4. b e d
5. pPPod
6. potOOOOOOOO
7. ehca
8. geg
9. XQQ
10. paid
    I'm
    worked




1. eye infection
2. for instance
3. generation gap
4. bedspread
5. two peas in a pod
6. potatoes
7. backache
8. scrambled egg
9. excuse
10. I'm overworked and underpaid.

 μΤΤϳؽԤ˸աʤξѸˤ˶̣ΤͭפʤΤѸؽԤѸ춵դΤäƤ»Ϥʤ

ݥȥեs 'sˤθˡ

Ȥλ֥ݡθפʤ Paul's dog֥ॺθפʤJames's dog Τ褦ɽǤ衢ʤɤȡ'sפλȤä򤷤Ƥ顢3ǯ˻ҳΰͤ줸㤢֥⡼©ҡפMoses's son ǤǤʹƤϡMoses' sonפǤ͡ȹġʼºݤˤϥۥ磻ȡܡɡˤ˽񤤤ȡɤơJames's dog ʤΤˡMoses's ȤϤʤʤΤǤפʹ֤ͤƤ鼡Τ褦

ͤνäȥ롼ɤ͡ϽʤäJames's dog James /dʒeɪmz/ñɡMoses /moʊzɪz/22ܤκǽȺǸ s Moses's ȤʤǡMoses' ȤȤդ˽ä衣뤤Moses Τ褦s βĽŤʤäƤȸäƤ⤤͡⡢Ȥson ȤsǻϤޤ줬³Ƥ뤫͡פطƤ͡Ulysses /julisi:z/ 3ˤ⤢ƤϤޤ뤳ȤǡUlysses's ȤɬפϤʤơޤǤUlysses ǤȤСUlysses stratagem ʥꥷάˤΤ褦ˡޤƱ2ǤJesus ξ硢Jesus's wounds ʥνˤȸäꤻˡƬǤϤषJesus' wounds ȤͤΤۤ¿͡Jesus's Ǥϸˤƻʤ͡θƬαƶɽˤƶڤܤƤ͡
äơ֥ĤλפͤˤȤäƤKeats's poems ȥ롼ɤ§äɽˡ͡Keats ñ͡ɡѸȤͤˤϡΥ롼ȿơJames' dog Ȥ Keats' poems ȤΤ褦˽񤯿ͤ뤫Τʤ͡ΤΤȤˤĤƤϸĿͺȸߤΰ㤤ФƤ͡
    ʤߤˡʣβĸǤ⡢˶ʤΡȤСappearance Τ褦ʸϡfor appearance's sake ̤ΤˡˤȽ񤤤Ƥ⡢for appearance' sake Ƚ񤤤Ƥ⹽ʤȻפ衣ºݤαѸǤϤѻ򤱤 for the sake of appearance ȸ褦ɤ͡

ʤȤäơ'sפλȤƱϡƬ𤷤ޤפ⤢ʤ󡣱ѸüԤǤ⡢񤷤ȴ褦ʸˡʤΤġ

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